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Simon Game
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Simon, a take-off of the electronic toy with the same name, is a deceptively simple game in which the NXT generates a random ever-lengthening sequence that you must reproduce purely from memory. Moving the Four Ins and Outs project to a circuit board makes the game look more professional, and Figure 13-14 shows how the circuit was built on the PCB. We used the opposite end of the PCB because the other end was already used for a different project.
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Figure 13-14. Simon game The complete listing of the Simon NXC program is located in Appendix C, but let s take a quick look at how the program reads the buttons in Listing 13-4. I2CBytes sends WriteBuf[1] which equals all ones (hexadecimal FF). That turns off the LEDs with the high 4 bits, and establishes inputs for the low 4 bits. Then I2CBytes reads the port value into ReadBuf. Remember, 1 means the button is not pressed, so the do-loop repeats while the reply is all 1s or no buttons are pressed. When a button has been pressed, the for-loop checks each bit to figure out which button it was. Listing 13-4. GetButtons from Simon.NXC Program int GetButtons() { WriteBuf[1] = 0xff; do { I2CBytes(I2Cport, WriteBuf, RdCnt, ReadBuf); } while (ReadBuf[0] == 0xff) for(int i=0; i<4; i++) { if((ReadBuf[0] & 1) == 0) return i; ReadBuf[0]>>=1; } }
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You might want to change some threshold, set point, limit, or other constant number s value in your NXT program. Because the NXT has only three input buttons, entering numeric values means that you have to use the computer to edit the value in the program and then download it all over again. However, with the Keypad Input shown in Figure 13-15, you can enter numbers directly into the NXT without the computer.
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Figure 13-15. Keypad Input built with the Mindsensors Prototype Board You could build the Keypad Input using the construction methods we have already discussed, but Mindsensors sells a PCF8574 prototype board that is perfect for the job. (More information about this board can be found in Appendix A.) All you need is to combine it with a 16-button matrix keypad such as the Grayhill 96BB2-056-R (Digi-Key #GH5011-ND). That is a 4-by-4 style keypad in which the buttons are connected in a row-and-column format (see Figure 13-16). The columns are connected to the top 4 bits, while the rows are connected to the bottom 4 bits of the PCF8574.
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Figure 13-16. Keypad schematic The eight connections to the keypad matrix are arranged as pins in a row that can be soldered directly into the holes of the Mindsensors prototype board I/O connector. The connector is labeled D0 to D7, but they are really just pins P0 to P7 of the PCF8574. Make sure that you use the middle eight holes in lower row, as shown in Figure 13-17. You don t need the outer holes that are for VCC and ground. It is a good idea to physically space the keypad as high above the top of the circuit board as possible and still have the pins reach all the way through to the bottom of the board.
Figure 13-17. Soldered connections on bottom of circuit board A complete listing of an NXC keypad data entry program can be found in Appendix C. The program builds up a number one digit at a time; when you are done, it saves the number in a file with the name A, B, C, or D.txt, depending on which letter key you press. Pressing the asterisk (*) button clears the number, and pressing the pound sign (#) button changes the sign of the number. A program that actually uses the number simply opens the appropriate file and reads the value out of it. The keypad can be temporarily connected or more permanently attached to the side with beams, as shown in Figure 13-18.
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