vb.net barcode component Getting Started with the Shell in Java

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Getting Started with the Shell
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You can start the shell in a number of ways. The most common is to use a terminal emulator program. As its name suggests, this runs a shell inside a program window on your desktop.
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CHAPTER 13 INTRODUC ING THE BA SH S HELL
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You can start GNOME Terminal, the built-in GNOME shell emulator, by clicking Applications Accessories Terminal, as shown in Figure 13-1.
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Figure 13-1. Start the The GNOME Terminal program from the Accessories submenu.
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You ll see the terminal window a blank, white window that s similar to a simple text editor window. When you run the terminal for the first time, at the top of the window will be a handful of lines telling you about the sudo command. We explain the importance of this in 14, but right now there s no need to worry about it. Below this will be the most important component of the terminal window the command prompt: a few words followed by the dollar symbol: $. On our test system, this is what we see:
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keir@keir-desktop:~$
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The first part is the username the user account we created during installation and use to log in to the PC. After the @ sign is the hostname of the PC, which we also chose when installing Ubuntu. The hostname of the PC isn t important on most desktop PCs; it s a legacy from the days of Unix.
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Note What s with the @ sign Again, it s a legacy from the days of Unix when the hostname referred to the
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site the computer was located at (such as the university or military facility). Reading the command prompt in this context, the line reads that the user keir is logged into the computer located at the location specified in the hostname! Like we said, this is a legacy of Unix s origins and doesn t mean much nowadays.
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After the colon is the current directory you re browsing. In this example, the ~ symbol appears instead of an actual path or directory name. This is merely Linux shorthand for
C HA PTER 13 INTRODUC IN G THE BAS H S HELL
the user s home directory. In other words, wherever we see a ~ on our test PC, we read it as /home/keir/. After this is the dollar symbol ($), which indicates that we re currently logged in as an ordinary user, as opposed to the root user. However, unlike most other Linux distributions, Ubuntu doesn t use the root account during day-to-day operations, so this is a moot point. Finally, there is a cursor, and this is where you can start typing commands!
Note If you were to log in as root, a hash (#) would appear instead of the dollar symbol prompt. This
is important to remember, because often in magazines and some computer manuals, the use of the hash symbol before a command indicates that it should be run as root. In addition, if you use the rescue function of the install CD, you ll be running as root, and a hash will appear at the prompt. See 14 for more information about the root user.
Running Programs
When we refer to commands at the shell, we re actually talking about small programs. When you type a command to list a directory, for example, you re actually starting a small program that will do that job. Seen in this light, the shell s main function is to simply let you run programs either those that are built into the shell, such as ones that let you manipulate files, or other, more complicated programs that you ve installed yourself. The shell is clever enough to know where your programs are likely to be stored. This information was given to it when you first installed Ubuntu and is stored in a system variable.
Note A variable is the method Linux uses to remember things like names, directory paths, or other data. There are many system variables that are vital for the running of Ubuntu. These variables can be seen by typing set at the command prompt.
The information about where your programs are stored, and therefore where Ubuntu should look for commands you type in, as well as any programs you might want to run, is stored in the PATH variable. You can take a look at what s currently stored there by typing the following:
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