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indows views text files as just another file type, but to Ubuntu, they can be essential components that make the system work. Configuration files are stored as plain text, and program documentation is also stored as text. This is clearly different from Windows, where it s very likely any information you re supposed to read will be contained in a Windows Help file, a rich text format (RTF) file, or even a Microsoft Word document. Because of the reliance on text files, the shell includes several commands that let you display, edit, and otherwise manipulate text files in various ways. Learning to use the shell, and therefore learning how to administer your Ubuntu system, involves having a good understanding of these text tools. You ll use text tools for editing configuration files and viewing log files, as just two examples.
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You can easily view files using command-line tools, including cat, less, head, and tail. The simplest command for dealing with text files is cat.
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Using the cat Command
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When followed with a filename, the cat command will display the text file on screen:
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cat mytextfile
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cat is short for concatenate, and it isn t designed just to display text files. That it can do so is simply a side effect of its real purpose in life, which is to join two or more files together. However, when used with a single file, it simply displays its contents on screen. If you try to use cat, you ll realize that it s good for only short text files; large files scroll off the screen.
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Using the less Command
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Because cat works well only with short files, and to give you more control when viewing text files, the less and more commands were created. The more command came first but was considered too primitive, so someone came up with less, which is preferred by many Linux users. However, both are usually available on the average Linux installation.
Note The less and more commands are sometimes known as pagers because of their ability to let you scroll through pages of text. You might still hear them referred to as such in the wider Linux community, although the term has fallen out of use.
Let s look at using less to read the Eye of Gnome README file, which contains information about the current release of the default Ubuntu image viewer. The file is located at /usr/share/doc/eog/README, so to use less to read it, type the following:
less /usr/share/doc/eog/README
You can scroll up and down within the less display by using the cursor keys. If you want to scroll by bigger amounts of text, you can use the Page Up and Page Down keys. Alternatively, you can use the spacebar and B key, both of which are commonly used by old-hand Linux users for the same function. In addition, the Home and End keys will take you to the start and end of the document, respectively. A useful command option to use with less is -M, which adds a short status bar to the bottom left. Alongside the filename, you ll see how many lines the document has and which line you re currently up to. In addition, you ll see, as a percentage, the amount of document you ve already read through, so you ll know how much is left. less lets you search forward through the file by typing a slash (/) and then entering your search term. Any words that are matched will be highlighted on screen. To repeat the search, type n. To search backward in a file from your current point, type a question mark ( ). To quit less, simply type q. Although it s supposedly a simple program, less is packed with features. You can see what options are available by reading its man page or by typing less --help.
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