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18 HIGH-PRECISION MACHINING
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High-precision CNC diamond turning machines are available for diamond mirror machining of components such as [3]: (a) Computer magnetic memory disc substrates (b) Convex mirrors for high output carbon dioxide laser resonators (c) Spherical bearing surfaces made of beryllium, copper, etc (d) Infrared lenses made of germanium for thermal imaging systems (e) Scanners for laser printers (f) X-ray mirror substrates Both lapping and polishing are considered to be high-precision machining operations Although the grinding of an IC silicon die discussed earlier falls under Taniguchi s second class of machiningprecision machining, the machining of the PCB of the IC after completely removing the silicon die substrate essentially falls under high-precision machining This operation tends to expose the transistors in the layers of the PCB Figure 119 depicts a typical high-precision machined PCB in which transistors in a layer are exposed Polishing of hard and brittle materials such as silicon wafers on a three-axis polishing machine, as shown in Figure 120 (a), has been reported [16] An LP600 precision Lapping and Polishing Machine (Figure 120 (b)) is found to be ideal for compound semiconductor wafer backthinning, ceramic substrate lapping, silicon wafer back thinning and sapphire wafer back thinning
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Fig 119: The top view of a layer of a typical high-precision machined PCB with exposed transistors
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(b) (a)
Fig 120: (a) A three-axis polishing machine [16] and (b) an LP600 machine used for lapping and polishing
(Logitech Ltd)
Creation of highly precise spherical and aspherical surfaces Ball bearings are typically manufactured using a screw-rolling process The operating principle is somewhat similar to that of the centre less grinding operation shown in Figure 121 In centre less grinding, the workpiece is supported by a blade that is placed between the grinding wheel and a small regulating (or feed) wheel [17, 18] The regulating wheel holds the part against the grinding wheel and controls the cutting pressure and the rotation The workpiece has its own centre as it rotates between the two wheels The screw-rolling process in its simplest form is illustrated in Figure 122 There are two methods for producing ball bearings: In one method [Figure 122 (a)] a round wire or a rod stock is fed into the
Fig 121:
The basic principle of a center less grinding operation [17]
Precision Engineering
roll gap, resulting in the continuous formation of roughly spherical blanks as the rod rotates In another method, a cylindrical blank is sheared and is then upset between two dies with hemispherical cavities in the ball headers [Figure 122 (b)] The balls are subsequently ground and polished using a special machining process
Blank Die Finished piece Ejector
Stock
Fig 122: Production of steel balls by (a) the skew-rolling processes and (b) upsetting a cylindrical blank The
balls made by these processes are subsequently ground and polished for use in ball bearings [6]
Lenses are manufactured using a high-precision machining process [1] Figure 123 shows a simplified mechanism of the operation of a polishing machine, illustrating an extremely dedicated operation As the form and the precision of the lens are affected by so many parameters, such as the type of the polishing resin used for the bowl, applied pressure, rotational speed, oscillation amplitude, number of workpieces to be attached and the type of abrasive material to be used, people who have considerable skills and experience are needed In addition, the precision of the final Fig 123: A schematic diagram of spherical surface machining-lens product depends on the final stage polishing [1] polishing and the preceding sanding and rough machining processes
Precision Engineering
19 ULTRA-PRECISION MACHINING
Taniguchi [5] has referred to ultra-precision machining as a process by which the highest possible dimensional accuracy is or has been achieved at a given point in time Also, it is referred to as the achievement of dimensional tolerances of the order of 001 m and a surface roughness of 0001 m (1 nm) The dimensions of the parts or elements of the parts produced may be as small as 1 m, and the resolution and the repeatability of the machine used must be of the order of 001 m (10 nm) The accuracy targets for ultra-precision machining cannot be achieved by a simple extension of conventional machining processes and techniques Figure 124 shows the dimensions of an integrated circuit (IC) specified to 01 m and indicates the requirement for ultra-precision machining accuracy capability of the order of 0005 m (5 nm) Satisfying such machining requirements are of course one of the most important challenges faced by today s manufacturing engineers However, we have seen the development and the introduction of a range of material processing technologies that are being used for the manufacture of parts to this order of accuracy The thin film technology required for the future generation of semiconductors necessitates the study of extreme technology problems and techniques wherein individual atoms have to be controlled and partitioned where required In this regard, ultra-precision machining technology is about to approach the extreme or the ultimate limit This calls for nanotechnology in which the theoretical limit of accuracy in the machining of substances approximates a size of an atom or molecule of the substance, the atomic lattice separation being of the order of 02 nm to 04 nm
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