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Tool Materials for Precision Machining
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bearing steel, alloys steels, case-hardened steels, white cast irons, and alloy cast irons The hardness values considered are in the range of 50 70 HRC Cutting tools required for hard turning are relatively expensive Selection of optimal cutting conditions must balance the trade-off between productivity and tool life, and thus the need to study the effect of cutting conditions on the wear behaviour of different hard turning tool materials Various studies have been conducted to investigate the performance of CBN tools in hard turning, especially to predict the effects of hardness on the tool-wear rate Poulachon et al [48] have indicated that the main wear mechanism of the PCBN tools when machining AISI 52100 steel (45< HRC< 65) is abrasion by hard alloy carbide particles contained in the work piece Abrasion of the cutting tool depends on the nature of the carbides, their size and their repartition The different work materials at the same hardness value cannot be assumed to be equal according to the tool-wear viewpoint
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Fig 242: Tool-wear rate progression [48]
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Chou and Evans [46] have evaluated tool performance based on part surface finish and flank wear when turning AISI 52100 steel of 61 63 HRC The results showed that low CBN content tools generate a better surface finish and have a lower flank wear rate than high CBN in finish turning, though with inferior mechanical properties, has a greater wear resistance than CBN-H, and the discrepancy increases with cutting speed
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(a) BZN 6000 (CBN-L)
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(b) BZN 8100 (CBN-H)
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Fig 243: A worn cutting edge of CBN tools at 240 m/min [46]: (a) BZN 6000 (CBN-L) and (b) BZN 8100 (CBN-H)
One major problem in machining hardened steels is the tool wear caused by the hardness of the material Poulachon et al [48], based on their studies, have shown that the major parameter influencing CBN tool wear is the presence of carbides in the steel microstructure
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Fig 244: Metallic third layer in a tool crater after machining X 38CrMoV5 steel [48]
Thiele and Melkote [49] have investigated the effects of the cutting edge geometry of a tool and workpiece hardness on the surface roughness and cutting forces in the finish hard turning of AISI 52100 steel with CBN inserts The study shows that the effect of the two-factor interaction of the edge geometry and workpiece hardness on the surface roughness is also found to be important
Tool Materials for Precision Machining
Fig 245: Microhardness of different carbides at 20 oC [48]
251 Coated CBN
The development and improvement of coating technology offer remarkable improvements in performance Today, tool manufacturers are constantly developing new combinations of coatings and substrates to precisely match different workpiece materials and operations The most widely used commercial coatings are TiC, AI2O3 (CVD process), TiAlN (PVD), TiN, TiCN (CVD and PVD), and diamond coatings (CVD) The application of hard, wear resistant coating on cutting tools began in the mid-1960s, and today, nearly 70% of cutting tools are coated Thus, coatings have become an integral part of modern cutting tool materials, and a considerable effort is expended in the research and development of new coating techniques and materials for making improved cutting tools The adhesion of the wear resistant coating to the tool surface is the most critical requirement, because the coating cannot be effective unless it is well bonded to the tool According to Quinto [50], the primary hard coating requirements in metal cutting are good adhesion to the tool substrate and to its adjacent coating layer in the case of multi-layers, high micro hardness at cutting temperatures and chemical inertness relative to the workpiece The secondary requirements are fine grain, crystalline microstructure, compressive residual stress, crack-free, and smooth surface morphology These factors are often interdependent There are essentially two
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