barcode reader library vb.net Friction Force, F = 554286 N Shear Force, Fs = in Software

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Friction Force, F = 554286 N Shear Force, Fs =
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{ (F cos i + F
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sin i ) cos n FQ sin n + ( FP sin i FR cos i )
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= {[(1160 cos ( 5 ) + 244 sin ( 5 )) cos (33124 ) 535 sin (33124 )]2 + [(1160 sin ( 5) 244 cos ( 5)]2}1/2
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Mechanics of Materials Cutting = {[(113432)(08375) (292352)]2 + [ 344172] 2}1/2 = 742257 N 22 Velocity hc = i = 5 tan hc = = = = hs = = = Cutting Velocity, Friction Velocity, (Stabler s flow rule)
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tan ( 5 ) cos (33124 ( 49811 )) tan ( 5 ) sin (33124 ) cos 49811
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006884 ( 004781) 099622 00211 tan 1 ( 00211) 002109 00211
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V = 4467 m/s Vc =
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sin n V cos ( n n )
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sin 33124 = 4467 cos 33124 ( 49811 ) = 3102 m/s
Shear Velocity,
cos n cos i Vs = V cos( n n ) cos s cos ( 5 ) cos ( 49811 ) = 4467 cos[33124 ( 49811 )] cos ( 00211 ) = 5635 m/s
23 Work Done Input work,
Friction Work,
Pi = = = Pf = = =
FP (V ) 1160 (4467) 51817 J/s F (Vc) 554286(3102) 17194 J/s
Precision Engineering Ps = Fs (Vs) = 742257(5635) = 418268 J/s Po = Pf + Ps = 17194 + 41827 = 59021 J/s = Input Work Output Work = 51817 59021 = 7204 J/s
Shear Work,
Output Work,
Difference
34 MECHANICS
GRINDING
341 Basic Mechanics of Grinding Material Removal Mechanism
Although there are various types of grinding operations, the surface grinding method is the most common process used to describe the basic mechanics in grinding operations Figure 321 (a) shows the basic arrangement in surface grinding, which has some similarity with the up-milling operation The major difference between milling and grinding lies in the cutting points being irregularly shaped and randomly distributed along the periphery of the wheel (Figure 321 (b)) The grains actually taking part in the material removal process are called active grains During grinding, the sharp edges of the active grains gradually wear out and become blunt This results in larger forces acting on the active grains, which may break the grains away from the wheel or may fracture the grains When a fracture takes place, new, sharp cutting edges are generated In contrast, when the whole grain is removed, new grains (below the layer of the active grains) become exposed and active This provides the grinding wheel with self-sharpening characteristics As seen in Figure 321 (b), a number of grits may have a very large negative rake angle of 30 to 60 , which can vary from grain to grain [5]
Fig 321: A line diagram showing (a) the basic scheme of the surface grinding operation similar to that of the up-
milling operation and (b) the cutting action of active grains that are randomly distributed in the periphery of bonded abrasive wheels
Mechanics of Materials Cutting
It is generally accepted that most materials can be removed from the workpiece in three distinct stages, that is, rubbing, ploughing and cutting (Figure 322)
Fig 322: Three distinct stages of material removal in grinding: (a) rubbing, (b) material displaced during ploughing
without material removal and (c) cutting with chip formation [5]
Groover [5] associated the material removal (wheel depth of cut) with the cutting force and the relationship in the three stages as shown in Figure 323 (a) As the wheel depth of cut increases, the cutting forces also increase gradually from rubbing to ploughing and step up drastically from ploughing to cutting where the chip completely forms and leaves the abrasive grain
Fig 323: (a) Relationship between the cutting force and the wheel depth of cut in the three phases of a grinding
process (b) specific energy decreases as the metal removal rate is increased throughout the three stages in the grinding operation [5]
Precision Engineering
Conversely, it can be seen that in Figure 323 (b), the specific energy drops as the metal removal rate is increased throughout these three stages due to a greater proportion of power being consumed in the efficient chip-formation process When describing chip formation in horizontal surface grinding, Pai et al [11] elaborated the aforementioned three stages by relating them to the formation of an undeformed chip thickness (t) as shown in Figure 324
Fig 324: A schematic of a horizontal surface grinding operation showing an individual undeformed chip and
grinding parameters [11]
An up-grinding operation involves a rubbing and plastic flow to the side without removal (ploughing) until the undeformed chip thickness reaches a critical value sufficient for penetration and chip formation According to Figure 324, rubbing occurs from A to A between the workpiece and the wear flats which develop on the grinding wheel grits The friction thus generated absorbs power but does no useful work Ploughing is a process whereby the abrasive grit plastically ploughs a groove and leaves small particles of highly distorted material alongside this groove During this stage, some materials are displaced, whereas others are completely removed, but this is an inefficient method of material removal This argument slightly contradicts with those of Malkin [12] and Grover [5] who have suggested that the work surface deforms plastically during a ploughing action and that energy is consumed without any material removal As shown in Figure 324, full chip formation occurs from B to C where chips form ahead of the abrasive grits
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