barcode reader library vb.net Fig 439: A wide range of Toshiba models from two-to five-axes ultra-precision turning and grinding in Software

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Fig 439: A wide range of Toshiba models from two-to five-axes ultra-precision turning and grinding
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machines [72]
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Fig 440: A variety of optical products made on a Toshiba machine: (a) spherical and aspheric lenses (plastic and
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glass), (b) turning and grinding of moulds for spherical and aspheric lenses and (c) a toric and freeform lens machine [72]
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mm of travel length The workpiece holding spindle is a pneumostatic air bearing design The spindle is powered through the use of a brushless type DC motor and will run up to a maximum speed of 3,000 RPM [73] The high-speed aspheric grinding system is designed and manufactured for use on Precitech OPTIMUM machining systems This compact aspheric grinding system uses a high-speed, turbine driven, air bearing spindle The air bearing spindle is mounted onto a manually positioned mechanical slide assembly The slide is mounted onto a fabricated steel column such that the grinding Fig 441: A close-up of the grinding of a large diameter spindle is positioned in the vertical direction aspheric lens glass on a Toshiba ULG 100A, The grinding spindle operates over a two-axis ultra-precision turning and grinding speed range of 10,000 70,000 RPM The machine [72] turbine drive provides an extremely smooth friction-free spindle rotation The grinding system accommodates grinding wheels from 3 mm 15 mm in diameter The system has been designed primarily for small aspheric components, particularly lenses and lens moulds up to 30 mm in diameter Semi-ductile grinding followed by simple mechanical polishing is an economical process for producing a mirror-like surface for hard and brittle Pyrex A fine grit resonoid bond grinding wheel was used by Ong and Venkatesh [74] to generate a large number of ductile streaks to improve the surface finish and to reduce the polishing time The ground samples were polished with different slurries on Precitech s OPTIMUM 2800
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Fig 442: A typical operation of Toshiba s ULG 100 [72]: (a) grinding of a tungsten carbide mould for glass
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lenses (b) Form accuracy of an aspheric lens on a Taylor Hobson instrument (c) Surface roughness measurement using the form Talysurf instrument
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Nanotech 500FG (Figure 444) developed by Moore Nanotechnology Systems adopts the microgrinding technique The machine is capable of generating arbitrary confocal shapes on materials
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Preston s coefficient for plano Pyrex glass and the lightness index of each polished sample
Polishing reagent Thickness removed (1 m grit size) during polishing dT ( m) Polycrystalline diamond Monocrystalline diamond Cerium oxide 39500 3700 1623 Polishing pressure P (kPa) 5506327 3317041 1925292 Polishing time, dt (min) 45 65 30 Relative speed, ds/dt (m s 1) 282743 282743 141371 Preston coefficient, k (m2 N 1) 9397 10 13 1012 10 13 3313 10
Lightness index l 2582 2431 2591
Fig 443: (a) Precitech s Optimum 2800 ultra-precision turning and grinding machine and a (b) close-up of the
grinding set-up for studying ductile streaks [73]
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Fig 444: Moore s Nanotech 500 FG [75]
ranging from optical glass and infrared materials to non-ferrous metals, crystals, polymers and ceramics The microground surface typically requires little or no post-polishing (Figure 445) The machine temperature is maintained stable to less than 05 C Grinding is done in a flood-cooled environment Namba and Abe [76] developed an ultra-precision surface grinder and succeeded in stabilizing their grinding process by using a spindle rotor made from zero-thermal glass-ceramic expansive material This machine has two vertical spindles with a hydrostatic bearing of high precision and rigidity It can machine at extremely fine depths of cut (01 ( m), and at submicron flatness and nanometre surface roughness (5 nm Rmax) on optical glass (NbF1), it is capable of producing Mn-Zn ferrite and electronic materials using diamond abrasive grinding wheels McKeown et al [77] of the Cranfield Unit for Precision Engineering (CUPE) also developed a three-axis ultra-precision grinding machine (Nanocentre) which can perform diamond turning, grinding, polishing and is capable of measuring complex machined profiles through a 125 nm resolution interferometry They also suggested that as a rule of thumb, the machine must have a static loop stiffness between the tool and the workpiece of at least 300 N/ m in order to establish safe conditions for ductile grinding Suzuki and Murakami of the Toyoda Machine Works developed another example of an ultraprecision grinding machine for machining non-axisymmetric aspheric mirrors This is a five-axis machine having a feedback resolution of 10 nm, and a laser rotary encoder with a resolution of 000002 degree, controls the rotational positioning It is clearly seen that machine rigidity, high dynamic stiffness, high thermal stability, precise and smooth feedback resolution control, ability to achieve fine depths of cut and the use of special tooling play a vital role in producing very smooth surfaces under the sub-nanometric level in ultra-precision machining
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