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Fig 445: A close-up of the grinding and the turning of an aspheric lens glass on a Moore s nanotech 500FG
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ultra-precision turning and grinding machine [75]
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452 Some Applications of Ultra-precision Machining
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Free-form surfaces are not new to mankind, and sculptured idols and monuments bear testimony to human skills They have been pervasive in manufacturing due to their exceptional performance and properties Novel optical systems with free-form optical surfaces were developed for the Polaroid X-70 instant camera They have found applications in the eyewear, electro-optics, defence and automotive industries Mirrors for surveillance, LTV lenses for lithography, X-ray mirrors for X-ray lithography, laser rods and windows are some of the important defence and commercial applications of free-form optics Free-form surfaces offer numerous advantages Among other benefits offered by free-form surfaces to optical systems are improvements in aerospace designs such as in the field of view, aerodynamics, detectability, and cost It is possible that semiconductor, lithography and imaging technologies can also benefit from free-form surfaces
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Free-form optics are not symmetric about any axis of revolution and are sometimes categorized as aspheres with non-rotational symmetry They are also referred to as conformal optics a combination of aspheric, spherical, cylindrical, conical, diffractive, plano or ogive (pointed) shapes Despite the particularity in the definition and the design of these surfaces, manufacturing systems treat them as free-form surfaces Some examples of free-form optical surfaces are shown in Figure 446
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Fig 446: Various shapes of free-form optics and their applications [75]
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The fabrication of free-form optical surfaces requires multi-axis machining centres and the use of the metrology system The machining precision needed to meet the system performance requirements for free-form optics, non-traditional military optics, for example, exceeds the capabilities of commercially available machine tools and processes by two to three orders of magnitude These free-form optics, machines, and metrology devices represent the next frontier in ultra-precision machining technology Table 44 compares the accuracy obtainable by the three methods of manufacturing
182 Table 44
Precision Engineering Comparison of the free-form surface finish by different processes (Courtesy Precitech lnc) [73]
Surface finish RMS (nm) 15 3 44 Form accuracy ( m)
Process
Diamond mill (Fly cut) Diamond turning Diamond grinding
0204 0057 0214
46 REFERENCES
1 Shaw, MC, A new theory of grinding, Mech and Chem Eng Trans Institution of Engrs (Australia) MC8: 1972, pp 73 78 2 Bifano, TG, Dow, TA and Scattergood, RO, Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials, Trans ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry 1991, 113: pp184 189 3 Bifano, TG and Fawcett, SC, Specific grinding energy as an in-process control variable for ductileregime grinding , Precision Engineering, 1991, 13(4): pp 256 262 4 Online available at wwwioporg/EJ/article/ 0034-4885/53/8/002/rpv53i8p1049pdf 5 Lindberg, RA, Processes and Materials of Manufacture, Prentice Hall of India Pte Ltd, New Delhi, 1970 6 HMT, Production Technology, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited New Delhi, 1980 7 Kalpakjian, S, Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Edition, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company New York, 1995 8 Rao, PN, Manufacturing Technology: Metal Cutting & Machine Tools, McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2000 9 Cook, NH, Manufacturing Analysis, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co Inc, USA, 1996 10 Pearce, CA, Silicon Chemistry and Applications, The Chemical Society, London, 1972 11 Stephenson, DA and Agapiou, JS, Metal Cutting Theory and Practice, Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, 1997 12 Xu, X, Yu, Y and Huang, H, Mechanisms of abrasive wear in the grinding of titanium (TC4) and nickel (K417) alloys, Wear, 2003, 255: pp 1421 1426 13 Subramaniam and Ramanath, Principles of Abrasive Machining Ceramics and Glasses, vol 4, Engineered Materials Handbook, ASM International, The Materials Information Society, 1991, p 316 14 Hensz, RR, Glass grinding and polishing SME technical paper, 1969, MR69-230: pp 1 11
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15 Dunnington, BW, Diamonds for abrasive machining, lapping, polishing and finishing, SME Technical Paper, 1978, MR78- 955: pp 1 8 16 Venkatesh, VC, Chandrasekaran, H, Experimental Techniques in Metal Cutting, Prentice-Hall of India Pte Ltd, 1987 17 Holz, R and Sauren, J, Grinding with Diamond and CBN WINTER Diamond and CBN Tools Catalogue, Ernst Winter & Sohn Diamantwerkzeuge GmbH & Co, 1988 18 Lindberg, RA, Processes and Materials of Manufacture, 4th Edition, Prentice Hall, Inc, New Jersey, 1990 19 Inasaki, I, Tonshoff, HK and Howes, TD, Abrasive machining in the future, Annals of the CIRP, 1993, 42(2): pp 723 732 20 Aurich, JC, Braun, O and Wernecke, G, Development of a superabrasive grinding wheel with defined grain structure using kinematic simulation, Annals of the CIRP, 2003, 52(1): pp 275 280 21 Anon, Tech front: defining grinding grains, Manufacturing Engineering, 2002, 6:24 22 Boothroyd, G, Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine Tools, International Student Edition, McGrawHill International Book Company, Tokyo, 1981 23 Donaldson, RD, Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL-52812 1979 (Vol1) 24 Anon, Diamond Tools and CBN Tools for Internal Grinding Catalogue, Ernst Winter & Sohn Diamantwerkzeuge GmbH & Co, Germany, 1995 25 Anon, Material Removal, Industrial Tooling Catalogue, Greenfield Industries, USA, 1995 26 Venkatesh, VC, Izman, S, Malaysian Patent No 20030326 on Novel binderless diamond grinding wheel, dated 31 1 03 27 Venkatesh, V C, Izman S, Mon TT, Konneh, M Failure analysis of IC chips using novel technique, to be published 28 Woon, KS, Binderless Grinding Wheel for Failure Analysis of Silicon Die on IC Chips, B Eng Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2003 29 Tang, KF, Novel Grinding Process for Failure Analysis of IC Chip Packaging, B Eng Thesis, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2003 30 Subramanian, K, Tricard, M, Future directions for the grinding of ceramics, Supergrind 95-Grinding and Polishing with Superabrasives, Storrs, Connecticut, 1995, pp 5 31 31 Krar, SF, Ratterman, E, Superabrasives: Grinding and machining with CBN and Diamond, Glencoe/McGrawHill, USA, 1990 32 DeGarmo P E, Black JT, Kohser RA, Materials and processes in manufacturing, 6th Edition, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 2002 33 Metzger, JL, Superabrasive Grinding, Butterworth and Co (Publishers) Ltd, 1986 34 Moore, WR, Foundation of Mechanical Accuracy, 800 Union Avenue, Bridgeport CT 06607 35 Venkatesh, VC, and S Izman, Ductile streaks in precision grinding of hard and brittle materials, Sadhana, Indian Academy of Science, Vol 28, 2003, pp 915 924 36 Anon, GE, Superabrasives Catalog, 2005
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