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Positioning Phase Force Friction Inertia Resistance Total Units N N N N Units Ff Fi Fr Ft
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Note: The sign indicates the direction of the force opposite the direction of the motion The motor has to provide a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to Ft
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To sum up the progress in drive systems, Table 54 discusses the future trend in high-speed machining It is clear that as the linear motor drive has many advantages, it is much costlier and is therefore used only for certain high end applications On the other hand, although the lead ball screw is inferior, it is used for most other applications and is sufficient for certain normal applications Table 55 compares the different feed drives It can be seen that the progress is from the conventional machining centre to a high lead ball screw and to a linear motor, which is used, in high-speed machining centres Along with this advancement, the progress in terms of feed rate and acceleration rate is also quite clear Table 54
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Machining centre Cost of machine Use Feed rate m/min Acceleration rate Static servo stiffness Position loop gain/s Temperature control
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Future trend of high-speed machining centres [19]
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With high lead ball screw Cheap $350000 SPM, positioning 60 80 07 12 G Very low at a feed rate higher than 3 m/min 20 Need With linear motors Expensive $700000 GPM, contouring 80 120 1 2 G High even at higher feed rates 150 Need
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Precision Engineering
Table 55
Type
Comparison of the characteristics among different feed drives [19]
Feed rate (m/min) ~30 60 60 100 Acceleration rate (G) 02 03 1 15 1 2
Conventional machining centre High speed machining centre with a high lead ball screw High speed machining centre with linear motors
54 SPINDLE DRIVE
Most ultra-precision air spindles use an integrated shaft approach The spindle shaft and motor are integrated in a single unit Such an arrangement benefits from additional stiffness and is effective in limiting motion errors This design technology offers the following advantages: Smaller geometric dimensions Reduced spindle weight Extended shaft cycle lifetime Higher rotation speed Higher self-frequencies lower vibration amplitudes Increase in bearing stiffness and maximum load capacity Lower maintenance cost Simplification of the automatic tool replacement system Lower production costs These advantages are significant for small, precision systems requiring the use of an accurate and reliable spindle, such as the hard disc of a home computer or a portable computer The current demand for increased disc rotation speeds dictates a transition from ball bearings to aerodynamic bearings and the integral system The basic drive in a spindle system is the electric motor with the air turbine emerging as a potential contender for future applications The selection of the type of electric motor plays a crucial role in the design Basically, the choice is very wide However, it can be categorized into two main classes the DC powered motor and the AC powered motor Although the AC motor is the product of a newer technology, it has some disadvantages compared to the DC motor However, the AC motor has since replaced some of the applications traditionally served earlier by DC motors Therefore, a comparison between the two will be appropriate to identify the characteristics DC motors have a wider speed range than do AC motors The AC motor is usually constructed from laminated frames The torque generated by the DC motor is higher than that generated by the AC motor Both the motors are relatively stable with the DC motor being slightly superior
Ultra-precision Machine Elements
There are four basic classes of AC motors, namely, single-phase, three-phase, universal and synchronous On the other hand, DC motors consist of the shunt wound, series wound, compound wound and permanent magnet types [20] From a general comparison, it would seem that the DC motor is more suitable for ultra-precision applications The advantages of DC motors are summarized by Mott [20] as follows: The speed can be adjusted by changing the applied voltage The direction of the rotation can be reversed by reversing the polarity of the motor It is easy to control the speed automatically Acceleration and deceleration can be smoothly controlled to reduce jerking Torque can be controlled by varying the current Dynamic braking can be used to eliminate the need for mechanical brakes Quick response and a high ratio of torque to inertia The torque motor is one among the several AC and DC motors that can be designed to suit special purpose applications, and it is able to exert a certain torque rather than a rated power [21] On the other hand, a synchronous motor operates nicely in sync with the moving field, but does not perform so well at non-synchronous speeds, as the field will tend to catch the wrong pole of the magnet and slow the motor down The stepper motor which is not suitable for continuous operations [22] is designed to rotate in steps in response to electrical pulses received at its input from a control unit Thus, it can be seen that most of these types of motors are not suitable for the purpose of driving a work or grinding spindle AC and DC servo motors are able to provide automatic control of position or speeds of a mechanism in response to a control signal It has a rapid response because of the low inertia of the rotating components and a relatively high torque exerted by the motor A servo motor can be commonly seen in aircraft actuators, instruments, computer printers and machine tools [20] In conventional brushed DC motors, the brushes that make contact with the rotating commutators are the main source of failure In order to overcome this shortcoming, brushless DC motors are used Solid-state electronics devices, resulting in a very long life, accomplish the switching of the rotor coils From this, it can be seen that for machine spindle applications, it is desirable that a DC brushless motor has a long life Therefore, most of the work and grinding spindles that are used for ultraprecision applications are of the DC brushless motor type For example, Moore Precision Tools utilizes brushless DC motors for its workholding spindle and the brushless DC servomotor for slideways Since the spindle for ultra-precision applications are of an integral arrangement, the motors are produced in-house together with the complete shaft
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