vb.net barcode reader code Figure 27 Sources and loads in an electrical circuit in Software

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Figure 27 Sources and loads in an electrical circuit
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Figure 26 Concept of voltage as potential difference
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EXAMPLE 23 Kirchhoff s Voltage Law Electric Vehicle Battery Pack
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Figure 28a depicts the battery pack in the Smokin Buckeye electric race car In this example we apply KVL to the series connection of 31 12-V batteries that make up the battery supply for the electric vehicle
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Circuits
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Vbatt1 Vbatt2 12 V 12 V 12 V
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Vbattn 12 V 12 V +
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v batt2 v batt3 v batt31 + + + + power converter vdrive and motor
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DC-AC converter (electric drive)
v batt1
AC motor (a) (b) (c)
Figure 28 Electric vehicle battery pack: illustration of KVL
Solution
Known Quantities: Nominal characteristics of OptimaTM lead-acid batteries Find: Expression relating battery and electric motor drive voltages Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: Vbatt = 12 V Figure 28(a), (b) and (c) Assumptions: None Analysis: Figure 28(b) depicts the equivalent electrical circuit, illustrating how the
voltages supplied by the battery are applied across the electric drive that powers the vehicle s 150-kW three-phase induction motor The application of KVL to the equivalent circuit of Figure 28(b) requires that:
Vbattn Vdrive = 0
Thus, the electric drive is nominally supplied by a 31 12 = 372-V battery pack In reality, the voltage supplied by lead-acid batteries varies depending on the state of charge of the battery When fully charged, the battery pack of Figure 28(a) is closer to supplying around 400 V (ie, around 13 V per battery)
Comments: This illustration is meant to give the reader an intuitive feel for the
signi cance of KVL; more detailed numerical examples of KVL will be presented later in this chapter, when voltage and current sources and resistors are de ned more precisely
IDEAL VOLTAGE AND CURRENT SOURCES
In the examples presented in the preceding sections, a battery was used as a source of energy, under the unspoken assumption that the voltage provided by the battery (eg, 15 volts for a dry-cell or alkaline battery, or 12 volts for an automotive leadacid battery) is xed Under such an assumption, we implicitly treat the battery as an ideal source In this section, we will formally de ne ideal sources Intuitively, an ideal source is a source that can provide an arbitrary amount of energy Ideal sources are divided into two types: voltage sources and current sources Of these,
2
Fundamentals of Electric Circuits
you are probably more familiar with the rst, since dry-cell, alkaline, and lead-acid batteries are all voltage sources (they are not ideal, of course) You might have to think harder to come up with a physical example that approximates the behavior of an ideal current source; however, reasonably good approximations of ideal current sources also exist For instance, a voltage source connected in series with a circuit element that has a large resistance to the ow of current from the source provides a nearly constant though small current and therefore acts very nearly like an ideal current source
Ideal Voltage Sources An ideal voltage source is an electrical device that will generate a prescribed voltage at its terminals The ability of an ideal voltage source to generate its output voltage is not affected by the current it must supply to the other circuit elements Another way to phrase the same idea is as follows:
vs(t)
vs(t)
General symbol for ideal voltage source vs (t) may be constant (DC source) + + Vs A special case: DC voltage source (ideal battery) +
+ ~ _
An ideal voltage source provides a prescribed voltage across its terminals irrespective of the current owing through it The amount of current supplied by the source is determined by the circuit connected to it
vs(t)
vs(t)
A special case: sinusoidal voltage source, vs (t) = V cos t
Figure 29 Ideal voltage sources
Figure 29 depicts various symbols for voltage sources that will be employed throughout this book Note that the output voltage of an ideal source can be a function of time In general, the following notation will be employed in this book, unless otherwise noted A generic voltage source will be denoted by a lowercase v If it is necessary to emphasize that the source produces a time-varying voltage, then the notation v(t) will be employed Finally, a constant, or direct current, or DC, voltage source will be denoted by the uppercase character V Note that by convention the direction of positive current ow out of a voltage source is out of the positive terminal The notion of an ideal voltage source is best appreciated within the context of the source-load representation of electrical circuits, which will frequently be referred to in the remainder of this book Figure 210 depicts the connection of an energy source with a passive circuit (ie, a circuit that can absorb and dissipate energy for example, the headlights and light bulb of our earlier examples) Three different representations are shown to illustrate the conceptual, symbolic, and physical signi cance of this source-load idea
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