vb.net barcode reader source code Figure 913 Load-line analysis of a simpli ed BJT ampli er in Software

Creation QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Software Figure 913 Load-line analysis of a simpli ed BJT ampli er

Figure 913 Load-line analysis of a simpli ed BJT ampli er
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Once an operating point is established and DC currents ICQ and IBQ are owing into the collector and base, respectively, the BJT can serve as a linear ampli er, as will be explained in Section 93 Example 94 serves as an illustration of the DC biasing procedures just described
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EXAMPLE 94 Calculation of DC Operating Point for BJT Ampli er
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Determine the DC operating point of the BJT ampli er in the circuit of Figure 914
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Known Quantities: Base, collector, and emitter resistances; base and collector supply voltages; collector characteristic curves; BE junction offset voltage Find: DC (quiescent) base and collector currents, IBQ and ICQ , and collector-emitter voltage, VCEQ Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: RB = 627 k ; RC = 375 ; VBB = 10 V; VCC = 15 V; V = 06 V The collector characteristic curves are shown in Figure 913 Assumptions: The transistor is in the active state Analysis: Write the load line equation for the collector circuit:
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+ B + VBE _ VCE _ E
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VCE = VCC RC IC = 15 375IC The load line is shown in Figure 913; to determine the Q point, we need to determine which of the collector curves intersects the load line; that is, we need to know the base current Applying KVL around the base circuit, and assuming that the BE junction is forward-biased (this results from the assumption that the transistor is in the active region), IB = VBB VBE VBB V 10 06 = = = 150 A RB RB 62,700
The intersection of the load line with the 150 A base curve is the DC operating or quiescent point of the transistor ampli er, de ned below by the three values: VCEQ = 7 V ICQ = 22 mA IBQ = 150 A
Comments: The base circuit consists of a battery in series with a resistance; we shall
soon see that it is not necessary to employ two different voltage supplies for base and collector circuits, but that a single collector supply is suf cient to bias the transistor Note that even in the absence of an external input to be ampli ed (AC source), the transistor dissipates power; most of the power is dissipated by the collector circuit: PCQ = VCEQ ICQ = 154 mW
Focus on Computer-Aided Tools: An Electronics WorkbenchTM simulation of the
circuit analyzed in this example is available in the CD-ROM that accompanies the book If you run the simulation, you will note that the values of the bias currents and voltage are slightly different from the ones computed in the example Double-click on the BJT icon to access the transistor model parameters, and compare the value of the BE junction voltage used by Electronics Workbench with that used in the example Does this discrepancy explain the observed differences
How can a transistor amplify a signal, then, given the VBE -IB and VCE IC curves discussed in this section The small-signal ampli er properties of the transistor are best illustrated by analyzing the effect of a small sinusoidal current
9
Transistor Fundamentals
IC + IC C +
IB + IB RB +
+ ~ _
VCE + VCE E VCC
VBE + VBE VB VBB
Figure 915 Circuit illustrating the ampli cation effect in a BJT
superimposed on the DC current owing into the base The circuit of Figure 915 illustrates the idea, by including a small-signal AC source, of strength VB , in series with the base circuit The effect of this AC source is to cause sinusoidal oscillations IB about the Q point, that is, around IBQ A study of the collector characteristic indicates that for a sinusoidal oscillation in IB , a corresponding, but larger, oscillation will take place in the collector current Figure 916 illustrates the concept Note that the base current oscillates between 110 and 190 A, causing the collector current to correspondingly uctuate between 153 and 286 mA The notation that will be used to differentiate between DC and AC (or uctuating) components of transistor voltages and currents is as follows: DC (or quiescent) currents and voltages will be denoted by uppercase symbols; for example: IB , IC , VBE , VCE AC components will be preceded by a : IB (t), IC (t), VBE (t), VCE (t) The complete expression for one of these quantities will therefore include both a DC term and a time-varying, or AC, term For example, the collector current may be expressed by iC (t) = IC + IC (t)
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