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EXAMPLE 96 Practical BJT bias circuit
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Determine the DC bias point of the transistor in the circuit of Figure 920
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Known Quantities: Base, collector, and emitter resistances; collector supply voltage; nominal transistor current gain; BE junction offset voltage Find: DC (quiescent) base and collector currents, IBQ and ICQ , and collector-emitter voltage, VCEQ Schematics, Diagrams, Circuits, and Given Data: R1 = 100 k ; R2 = 50 k ;
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RC = 5 k ; RE = 3 k ; VCC = 15 V; V = 07 V
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Analysis: We rst determine the equivalent base voltage from equation 96:
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VBB =
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R1 100 15 = 5 V VCC = R1 + R 2 100 + 50
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and the equivalent base resistance from equation 97: RB = R1 R2 = 333 k Now we can compute the base current from equation 910: IB = VBB VBE VBB V 5 07 = 128 A = = RB + ( + 1)RE RB + ( + 1)RE 33,000 + 101 3000
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and knowing the current gain of the transistor, , we can determine the collector current: IC = IB = 128 mA Finally, the collector-emitter junction voltage can be computed with reference to equation 911: VCE = VCC IC RC + +1 RE 101 3 10 3 100 = 472 V
= 15 128 10 3 5 10 3 +
Part II
Electronics
Thus, the Q point of the transistor is given by: VCEQ = 472 V ICQ = 128 mA IBQ = 128 A
Focus on Computer-Aided Tools: An Electronics WorkbenchTM simulation of the circuit analyzed in this example is available in the CD-ROM that accompanies the book
The material presented in this section has illustrated the basic principles that underlie the operation of a BJT and the determination of its Q point In the next section and later, in 10, we shall develop some simple circuit models for the BJT that will enable us to analyze the transistor ampli er in the linear active region using the familiar tools of linear circuit analysis
Check Your Understanding
94 Describe the operation of a pnp transistor in the active region, by analogy with that
of the npn transistor
95 For the circuit given in Figure 911, the readings are V1 = 3 V, V2 = 24 V, and V3 = 27 V Determine the operating region of the transistor 96 For the circuit given in Figure 921, nd the value of VBB that yields a collector current IC = 63 mA What is the corresponding collector-emitter voltage (assume that VBE = 06 V and that the transistor is in the active region) Assume that RB = 50 k , RE = 200 , RC = 1 k , = 100, and VCC = 14 V 97 What percent change in collector current would result if were changed to 150 in Example 96 Why does the collector current increase by less than 50 percent
BJT LARGE-SIGNAL MODEL
The i-v characteristics and the simple circuits of the previous sections indicate that the BJT acts very much as a current-controlled current source: A small amount of current injected into the base can cause a much larger current to ow into the collector This conceptual model, although somewhat idealized, is useful in describing a large-signal model for the BJT, that is, a model that describes the behavior of the BJT in the presence of relatively large base and collector currents, close to the limit of operation of the device A more careful analysis of the collector curves in 10 will reveal that it is also possible to generate a small-signal model, a model that describes the operation of the transistor as a linear ampli er of small AC signals These models are certainly not a complete description of the properties of the BJT, nor do they accurately depict all of the effects that characterize the operation of such devices (for example, temperature effects, saturation, and cutoff); however, they are adequate for the intended objectives of this book, in that they provide a good qualitative feel for the important features of transistor ampli ers Large-Signal Model of the npn BJT The large-signal model for the BJT recognizes three basic operating modes of the transistor When the BE junction is reverse-biased, no base current (and therefore
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