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Part II
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A 1-MHz clock is the time baseline Two of the AM9513A counter/timers are for multiple A/D conversion timing The three remaining counters can be used for special data acquisition timing, such as expanding to a 32-bit sample counter or generating interrupts at user-programmable time intervals RTSI Bus Interface: The AT-MIO-16 is interfaced to the RTSI bus You can send or receive the external analog input control signal; the waveform-generation timing signals; the output of counters 1, 2, and 5; the gate of counter 1; and the source of counter 5 You can send the RTSI bus the frequency output of the AM9513A PC/AT I/O Channel Interface: The PC/AT I/O channel interface circuitry includes address latches, address-decoding circuitry, data buffers, and interface timing and control signals I/O Connector: The I/O connector is a 50-pin male ribbon cable connector Software Support: The AT-MIO-16 also has software packages that control data acquisition functions on the PC-based data acquisition boards
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1510 Apply KCL at the inverting node of the summing ampli er of Figure 1525 to show that equation 1524 holds whenever Ri = R0 /2i 1511 If the maximum analog voltage (Va max ) of a 12-bit DAC is 15 volts, nd the smallest step size ( v) by which va can increment 1512 Repeat Example 156 for the case of an eight-bit word with R0 = 10 k and the same range of va Find the value of v and RF Assume that ideal resistor values are available 1513 For Figure 1525, nd Vmax if Vin = 45 V 1514 For Figure 1525, nd the resolution if Vin = 38 V 1515 Find the minimum number of bits required in a DAC if the range of the DAC is
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from 05 to 15 V and the resolution of the DAC is 20 mV
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1516 In Example 1511, if the maximum conversion time available to you were 50 s, what would be the highest-frequency signal you could expect to sample on the basis of
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the Nyquist criterion
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Timing and comparator circuits nd frequent application in instrumentation systems The aim of this section is to introduce the foundations that will permit the student to understand the operation of op-amp comparators and multivibrators, and of an integrated circuit timer
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Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements
The Op-Amp Comparator
VS _ A + + Rout vout
The prototype of op-amp switching circuits is the op-amp comparator of Figure 1535 This circuit, you will note, does not employ feedback As a consequence of this, vout = AV (OL) (v + v ) (1527)
Figure 1535 Op-amp in open-loop mode
vin (t) + ~
+ _
+ _ vout (t)
Because of the large gain that characterizes the open-loop performance of the opamp (AV (OL) > 105 ), any small difference between input voltages, , will cause large outputs In particular, for of the order of a few tens of microvolts, the op-amp will go into saturation at either extreme, according to the voltage supply values and the polarity of the voltage difference (recall the discussion of the opamp voltage supply limitations in Section 126) For example, if were a 1-mV potential difference, the op-amp output would ideally be equal to 100 V, for an open-loop gain AV (OL) = 105 (and in practice the op-amp would saturate at the voltage supply limits) Clearly, any difference between input voltages will cause the output to saturate toward either supply voltage, depending on the polarity of One can take advantage of this property to generate switching waveforms Consider, for example, the circuit of Figure 1536, in which a sinusoidal voltage source vin (t) of peak amplitude V is connected to the noninverting input In this circuit, in which the inverting terminal has been connected to ground, the differential input voltage is given by = V cos ( t) (1528)
Figure 1536 Noninverting op-amp comparator
and will be positive during the positive half-cycle of the sinusoid and negative during the negative half-cycle Thus, the output will saturate toward VS+ or VS , depending on the polarity of : the circuit is, in effect, comparing vin (t) and ground, producing a positive vout when vin (t) is positive, and a negative vout when vin (t) is negative, independent of the amplitude of vin (t) (provided, of course, that the peak amplitude of the sinusoidal input is at least 1 mV, or so) The circuit just described is therefore called a comparator, and in effect performs a binary decision, determining whether vin (t) > 0 or vin (t) < 0 The comparator is perhaps the simplest form of an analog-to-digital converter, that is, a circuit that converts a continuous waveform into discrete values The comparator output consists of only two discrete levels: greater than and less than a reference voltage The input and output waveforms of the comparator are shown in Figure 1537, where it is assumed that V = 1 V and that the saturation voltage corresponding to the 15-V supplies is approximately 135 V This circuit will be termed a noninverting comparator, because a positive voltage differential, , gives rise to a positive output voltage It should be evident that it is also possible to construct an inverting comparator by connecting the noninverting terminal to ground and connecting the input to the inverting terminal Figure 1538 depicts the waveforms for the inverting comparator The analysis of any comparator circuit is greatly simpli ed if we observe that the output voltage is determined by the voltage difference present at the input terminals of the op-amp, according to the following relationship:
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