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barcode reader code in c# net rotational losses amount to 80 W in Software
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EXAMPLE 188 Universal Motor Torque Expression
Problem
Compute an expression for the average torque generated by a universal motor, based on the circuit diagram of Figure 1824 Solution
Known Quantities: Circuit model of motor Find: Expression for average torque, Tave Assumptions: The motor operates in the linear region of the magnetization curve Analysis: With reference to 17, we know that the ux produced in a series motor by the series current iS (t) is = kS iS (t) The instantaneous torque produced by the machine is given by the expression T (t) = kT (t)is (t) If the source waveform has period = 2 / , we can calculate the average power by integrating the instantaneous torque over one period: 2 / 2 / Tave (t) = 2 2 kT kS iS (t
)dt = 2
2 kT kS IS (sin2 t )dt =
1 2 k T k S IS 2
where IS is the rms value of the (series) armature current
Comments: The series motor can produce a nonzero average torque when excited by an
AC current because of the quadratic nature of the instantaneous torque A PM DC machine, which has a linear torquecurrent relationship, would generate zero average torque if driven from an AC supply SinglePhase Induction Motors A typical singlephase induction motor bears close resemblance to the polyphase squirrelcage induction motor discussed in 17, the major difference being in the con guration of the stator winding A simpli ed schematic diagram of such a motor, with a single winding, is shown in Figure 1825; the winding is typically distributed around the stator so as to produce an approximately sinusoidal mmf Assume that the mmf for a practical motor can be generated so as to approximate the following function: F = Fmax cos( t) cos( m ) This function can be written as the sum of two components, as follows: Figure 1825 Singlephase induction motor
1 F + = 2 Fmax cos( m t) 1 F = 2 Fmax cos( m + t) Squirrelcage rotor
Stator winding
These two components may be interpreted as representing two mmf waves traveling in opposite directions around the stator Each of these mmf s produces torque

