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II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
8. Cytogenetics
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Eight
Cytogenetics
BOX 8.1
n 1966, David Futch published a study of the chromosomes of a fruit y, Drosophila ananassae, an organism widely distributed throughout the tropical Paci c. The study was designed to determine something about the species status of various melanic forms of the y. In the course of his work, Futch looked at the salivary gland chromosomes of ies from twelve different localities. He discovered twelve paracentric inversions, three pericentric inversions, and one translocation. Because of the precise banding patterns of these chromosomes, it was possible
Experimental Methods
A Case History of the Use of Inversions to Determine Evolutionary Sequence
to determine the breakage points for each inversion. Observation of several populations that have had sequential changes in their chromosomes makes
it possible to determine the sequence of successive changes. Once one knows the sequence of changes in different populations of Drosophila ananassae, along with the geographic locations of the populations, it is possible to determine the history of the way the ies colonized these tropical islands. D. ananassae is particularly suited to this type of work because it is believed to be a recent invader to most of the Paci c Islands that it occupies. It is of interest to know about the spread of this species as an adjunct to studies of human migration in the Paci c Islands
Photomicrographs of the left arm of chromosome 2 (2L) from larval Drosophila ananassae heterozygous for various complex gene arrangements. (a) Pairing when heterozygous for standard gene sequence and overlapping inversions (2LC; 2LD) and inversion 2LB (Standard Tutuila light). (b) Pairing when heterozygous for standard gene sequence and single inversion 2LC and overlapping inversions (2LE; 2LB: Standard New Guinea). (c) Pairing when heterozygous for overlapping inversions (2LD; 2LE; 2LF: Tutuila light New Guinea). (From David G. Futch, A study of speciation in South Paci c
populations of Drosophila ananassae, in Marshall R. Wheeler, ed., Studies in Genetics, no. 6615 [Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966]. Reproduced by permission.)
Two Breaks in Nonhomologous Chromosomes
Breaks can occur simultaneously in two nonhomologous chromosomes. Reunion can then take place in various ways. The most interesting case occurs when the ends of two nonhomologous chromosomes are translocated to each other in a reciprocal translocation ( g. 8.10). The organism in which this has happened, a reciprocal translo-
cation heterozygote, has all the genetic material of the normal homozygote. Two outcomes of a reciprocal translocation, like those of an inversion, are new linkage arrangements in a homozygote an organism with translocated chromosomes only and variegation position effects. During synapsis, either at meiosis or endomitosis, a point-for-point pairing in the translocation heterozygote
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
II. Mendelism and the Chromosomal Theory
8. Cytogenetics
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Variation in Chromosomal Structure
39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Figure 2
30 31 32 33
39 38 37 36 35 34
30 31 32 33
39 38 37 36 35 34 2 LF
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 2 LD
29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 13 14 15 16 10 11 12 (c)
30 31 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29
39 38 37 36 35 34 (a)
2 LB
2 LE
33 32 14 13 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
2 LC
Chromosomal maps of 2L. (a) Standard gene sequence. (b) Ponape: breakpoints of 2LC and 2LB are indicated and the segments are shown inverted. (c) Tutuila light: breakpoints of 2LD are indicated. 2LC and 2LB are inverted. 2LD, which overlaps 2LC, is also shown inverted. (d) New Guinea: breakpoints of 2LE and 2LG are indicated. 2LC, 2LB, and 2LE are shown inverted. Note: only the breakpoints of 2LF and 2LG are shown; neither of these is inverted in the map. (From David G. Futch, A
Photomicrographs of the right arm of chromosome 2 (2R) from larvae heterozygous for various complex gene arrangements. (a) Pairing when heterozygous for standard gene sequence and overlapping inversions (2RA; 2RB: Standard Tutuila light). (b) Pairing when heterozygous for standard gene sequence and overlapping inversions (2RA; 2RC) and inversion 2RD (Standard New Guinea). (c) Pairing when heterozygous for overlapping inversions 2RB, 2RC, and 2RD. Inversion 2RA is homozygous (Tutuila light New Guinea). (From David G. Futch, A study of
speciation in South Paci c populations of Drosophila ananassae, in Marshall R. Wheeler, ed., Studies in Genetics, no. 6615 [Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966]. Reproduced by permission.)
study of speciation in South Paci c populations of Drosophila ananassae, in Marshall R. Wheeler, ed., Studies in Genetics, no. 6615 [Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966]. Reproduced by permission.)
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