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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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10. Gene Expression: Transcription
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The central dogma is a description of how genetic information is transferred among DNA, RNA, and protein. In chapter 9, we described the DNA self-replication loop. In this chapter, we described the transcriptional process, in which DNA acts as a template for the production of RNA.
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STUDY OBJECTIVE 1: To examine the types of RNA and Eukaryotic genes have promoters with sequences analogous to those in prokaryotic promoters as well as enhancers that work at a distance. The ribosome is made of two subunits, each with protein and RNA components. Transfer RNAs are charged with their particular amino acids by enzymes called aminoacyltRNA synthetases. Each transfer RNA has about eighty nucleotides, including several unusual bases. All transfer RNAs have similar structures and dimensions. Transfer RNAs and ribosomal RNAs are modi ed from their primary transcripts. STUDY OBJECTIVE 3: To investigate posttranscriptional
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their roles in gene expression
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245 246, 256 260
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Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a complementary copy of the DNA of a gene that carries the information of the gene to the ribosomes, where protein synthesis actually takes place. Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) transport the amino acid building blocks of proteins to the ribosome. Complementarity between the messenger RNA codon and the transfer RNA anticodon establishes the amino acid sequence in the synthesized protein ultimately speci ed by the gene. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is also involved in this process of genedirected protein synthesis. STUDY OBJECTIVE 2: To look at the process of transcrip-
changes in eukaryotic messenger RNAs, including an analysis of intron removal 260 276
Prokaryotic messenger RNAs are transcribed with a leader before, and a trailer after, the translatable part of the gene. In prokaryotes, translation begins before transcription is completed. In eukaryotes, these processes are completely uncoupled transcription is nuclear and translation is cytoplasmic. Eukaryotic messenger RNA is modi ed after transcription: a cap and tail are added, and intervening sequences (introns) are removed, before transport into the cytoplasm. Introns can be removed by self-splicing or with the aid of the spliceosome, composed of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). It is not known whether introns arose early or late in evolution or what their functions are. In some organisms, such as trypanosomes, RNAs can be edited further by the addition or deletion of nucleotides under the direction of guide RNA. The study of several RNA viruses has shown that RNA can act as a template to replicate itself and to synthesize DNA; under laboratory conditions, DNA can be translated directly into protein. These discoveries add new directions of information transfer to the central dogma.
tion, including start and stop signals, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes 246 256
Intracellular RNA is single-stranded, although extensive intramolecular stem-loop structures may form. At any one gene, RNA is transcribed from only one strand of the DNA double helix. The transcribing enzyme is RNA polymerase. In E. coli, the core enzyme, when associated with a sigma factor, becomes the holoenzyme that recognizes the transcription start signals in the promoter. Several consensus sequences de ne a promoter. In prokaryotes, termination of transcription requires a sequence on the DNA, called the terminator, that causes a stem-loop structure to form in the RNA. Sometimes the rho protein is required for termination (in rho-dependent, as compared with rho-independent, termination). In eukaryotes, there are three RNA polymerases.
S O L V E D
PROBLEM 1: What would be the sequence of segments
P R O B L E M S
be a spacer region of nucleotides, followed by another initiation codon, intervening nucleotides that are translated into amino acids, and a termination codon.This sequence of initiation codon, codons to be translated, a termination codon, and spacer RNA would be repeated for as many genes as are present in the messenger RNA.
PROBLEM 2: Can one nucleotide be a conserved sequence
on a prokaryotic messenger RNA with more than one gene present Answer: The transcript would have unmodi ed 5 (leader) and 3 (trailer) ends. Reading the sequence of nucleotides on the RNA, you would come across an initiation codon (AUG) and then, after perhaps nine hundred more nucleotides, a termination codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA). The nine hundred nucleotides would be those translated into the protein. Then there would
Answer: Conserved sequences are invariant sequences of DNA or RNA recognizable to either a protein or a
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