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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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12. DNA: Its Mutation, Repair, and Recombination
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DNA: Its Mutation, Repair, and Recombination
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he mutation, repair, and recombination of DNA are treated together in this chapter because the three processes have much in common. The physical alteration of DNA is involved in each; repair and recombination share some of the same enzymes. We progress from mutation the change in DNA to repair of damaged DNA, and, nally, to recombination, the new arrangement of pieces of DNA.
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non-Darwinian view. As Luria said, bacteriology remained the last stronghold of Lamarckism (the belief that acquired characteristics are inherited).
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What Causes Genetic Variation
Luria and Delbr ck studied the Tonr (phage T1-resistant) mutants of a normal Tons (phage T1-sensitive) Escherichia coli strain. They used an enrichment experiment, as described in chapter 7, wherein a petri plate is spread with E. coli bacteria and T1 phages. Normally, no bacterial colonies grow on the plate: all the bacteria are lysed. However, if one of the bacterial cells is resistant to T1 phages, it produces a bacterial colony, and all descendants of this colony are T1 resistant. There are two possible explanations for the appearance of T1-resistant colonies: 1. Any E. coli cell may be induced to be resistant to phage T1, but only a very small number actually are. That is, all cells are genetically identical, each with a very low probability of exhibiting resistance in the presence of T1 phages. When resistance is induced, the cell and its progeny remain resistant. 2. In the culture, a small number of E. coli cells exist that are already resistant to phage T1; in the presence of phage T1, only these cells survive. If the presumed rates of physiological induction and mutation are the same, determining which of the two mechanisms is operating is dif cult. Luria and Delbr ck, however, developed a means of distinguishing between these mechanisms. They reasoned as follows: If T1 resistance was physiologically induced, the relative frequency of resistant E. coli cells in a culture of the normal (Tons) strain should be a constant, independent of the number of cells in the culture or the length of time that the culture has been growing. If resistance was due to random mutation, the frequency of mutant (Tonr) cells would depend on when the mutations occurred. In other words, the appearance of a mutant cell would be a random event. If a mutation occurs early in the growth of the culture, then many cells descend from the mutant cell, and therefore many resistant colonies develop. If the mutation does not occur until late in the growth of the culture, then the subsequent number of mutant cells is few. Thus, if the mutation hypothesis is correct, there should be considerable uctuation from culture to culture in the number of resistant cells present ( g. 12.1).
M U TA T I O N
The concept of mutation (a term coined by de Vries, a rediscoverer of Mendel) is pervasive in genetics. Mutation is both the process by which a gene (or chromosome) changes structurally and the end result of that process. Without alternative forms of genes, the biological diversity that exists today could not have evolved. Without alternative forms of genes, it would have been virtually impossible for geneticists to determine which of an organism s characteristics are genetically controlled. Studies of mutation provided the background for our current knowledge in genetics.
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In 1943, Salvador Luria and Max Delbr ck published a paper entitled Mutations of Bacteria from Virus Sensitivity to Virus Resistance. This paper ushered in the era of bacterial genetics by demonstrating that the phenotypic variants found in bacteria are actually attributable to mutations rather than to induced physiological changes. Very little work had previously been done in bacterial genetics because of the feeling that bacteria did not have normal genetic systems like the systems of fruit ies and corn. Rather, bacteria were believed to respond to environmental change by physiological adaptation, a
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