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Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
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III. Molecular Genetics
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17. Non Mendelian Inheritance
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The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
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26. If Paramecium cells heterozygous for both genes involved in the maintenance of the mate-killer trait are forced to undergo autogamy, what phenotypic ratios do you expect
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27. A petite yeast strain is crossed with a wild-type strain. What phenotypic ratio do you expect after meiosis if the petite is a. nuclear b. suppressive c. neutral
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1. When a eukaryotic cell divides, cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts are distributed to the daughter cells. What mechanisms might exist to ensure an even distribution of these organelles 2. Lamarckian inheritance, the inheritance of acquired characteristics, is generally discounted as a major evolutionary mechanism (chapter 21). (For example,
Lamarck suggested that the long neck of the giraffe came about by as giraffes stretched for food, followed by the inheritance of this longer, stretched neck.) Is the progression of the lysogenic state of E. coli from one generation to the next an example of Lamarckian inheritance Why or why not
Suggested Readings for chapter 17 are on page B-18.
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
18. Quantitative Inheritance
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
QUANTITATIVE INHERITANCE
STUDY OBJECTIVES
1. To understand the patterns of inheritance of phenotypic traits controlled by many loci 531 2. To investigate the way that geneticists and statisticians describe and analyze normal distributions of phenotypes 535 3. To de ne and measure heritability, the unit of inheritance of variation in traits controlled by many loci 542
STUDY OUTLINE
Traits Controlled by Many Loci 531 Two-Locus Control 531 Three-Locus Control 532 Multilocus Control 532 Location of Polygenes 533 Signi cance of Polygenic Inheritance 534 Population Statistics 535 Mean,Variance, and Standard Deviation 536 Covariance, Correlation, and Regression 539 Polygenic Inheritance in Beans 541 Selection Experiments 541 Heritability 542 Realized Heritability 542 Partitioning of the Variance 543 Measurement of Heritability 544 Quantitative Inheritance in Human Beings 545 Skin Color 545 IQ and Other Traits 546 Summary 547 Solved Problems 548 Exercises and Problems 549 Critical Thinking Questions 551 Box 18.1 Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci 537 Box 18.2 Human Behavioral Genetics 547
Much human variation is quantitative.
( Jim Cummins/FPG International.)
Tamarin: Principles of Genetics, Seventh Edition
IV. Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics
18. Quantitative Inheritance
The McGraw Hill Companies, 2001
Traits Controlled by Many Loci
hen we talked previously of genetic traits, we were usually discussing traits in which variation is controlled by single genes whose inheritance patterns led to simple ratios. However, many traits, including some of economic importance such as yields of milk, corn, and beef exhibit what is called continuous variation. Although some variation occurred in height in Mendel s pea plants, all of them could be scored as either tall or dwarf; there was no overlap. Using the same methods that Mendel used, we can look at ear length in corn ( g. 18.1). With Mendel s peas, all of the F1 were tall. In a cross between corn plants with long and short ears, all of the F1 plants have ears intermediate in length between the parents. When both pea and corn F1 plants are selffertilized, the results are again different. In the F2 generation, Mendel obtained exactly the same height categories (tall and dwarf) as in the parental generation. Only the ratio was different 3:1.
In corn, however, ears of every length, from the shortest to the longest, are found in the F2; there are no discrete categories. A genetically controlled trait exhibiting this type of variation is usually controlled by many loci. In this chapter, we study this type of variation by looking at traits controlled by progressively more loci. We then turn to the concept of heritability, which is used as a statistical tool to evaluate the genetic control of traits determined by many loci.
TRAITS CONTROLLED BY MANY LOCI
Let us begin by considering grain color in wheat. When a particular strain of wheat having red grain is crossed with another strain having white grain, all the F1 plants have kernels intermediate in color. When these plants are self-fertilized, the ratio of kernels in the F2 is 1 red:2 intermediate:1 white ( g. 18.2). This is inheritance involving one locus with two alleles. The white allele, a, produces no pigment (which results in the background color, white); the red allele, A, produces red pigment.The F1 heterozygote, Aa, is intermediate (incomplete dominance). When this monohybrid is self-fertilized, the typical 1:2:1 ratio results. (For simplicity, we use dominantrecessive allele designations, A and a. Keep in mind, however, that the heterozygote is intermediate in color.)
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