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discontinuous replication In DNA, the replication in short 5 to 3 segments, using the 5 to 3 strand as a template while going backward, away from the replication fork. discontinuous variation Variation that falls into discrete categories (e.g., the green and yellow color of garden peas). discrete generations Generations that have no overlapping reproduction. All reproduction takes place between individuals of the same cohort. dispersive replication A postulated mode of DNA replication combining aspects of conservative and semiconservative replication; known to be incorrect. disruptive selection A type of selection that removes individuals from the center of a phenotypic distribution and thus causes the distribution to become bimodal. D-loop Con guration found during DNA replication of chloroplast and mitochondrial chromosomes wherein the origin of replication is different on the two strands. The rst structure formed is a displacement loop, or D-loop. DNA cloning See gene cloning. DNA-DNA hybridization The process of taking DNA from the same or different sources and heating and then cooling it, causing double helices to re-form at homologous regions. This technique is useful for determining sequence similarities and degrees of repetitiveness among DNAs. DNA ngerprint A pattern of bands created on an electrophoretic gel of a DNA digest probed for a variable locus. DNA glycosylases Endonucleases that initiate excision repair at the sites of various damaged or improper bases in DNA. DNA gyrase A topoisomerase that relieves supercoiling in DNA by creating a transient break in the double helix. DNA ligase An enzyme that closes nicks or discontinuities in one strand of doublestranded DNA by creating an ester bond between adjacent 3 -OH and 5 -PO4 ends on the same strand. DNA polymerase One of several classes of enzymes that polymerize DNA nucleotides using single-stranded DNA as a template. DNA-RNA hybridization The process of heating and then cooling a mixture of DNA and RNA so that the RNA can hybridize (form a double helix) with DNA with a complementary nucleotide sequence. docking protein Responsible for attaching (docking) a ribosome to a membrane by interacting with a signal particle attached to a ribosome destined to be membrane bound. dominant An allele that expresses itself even when heterozygous. Also, the trait controlled by that allele. dosage compensation A mechanism by which species with sex chromosomes ensure that one sex does not have differential activity of alleles on the sex chromosomes.
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dot blotting A blotting technique, used on DNA already cloned, that eliminates the electrophoretic separation step. Autoradiographs reveal dots rather than bands on a gel, indicating a probed sequence. double digest The product formed when two different restriction endonucleases act on the same segment of DNA. double helix The normal structural con guration of DNA consisting of two helices rotating about the same axis. downstream A convention on DNA related to the position and direction of transcription by RNA polymerase (5 3 ). Downstream (in the 3 direction) is in the direction of transcription, whereas upstream (in the 5 direction) is in the direction from which the polymerase has come. downstream promoter element (DPE) A consensus sequence at about 28 to 34 of RNA polymerase II promoters that have initiator elements but not TATA boxes. dyad Two sister chromatids attached to the same centromere. dynein Microtubule motor protein. dysplasia Excessive cell growth that involves pathological changes to the cells and their nuclei. electrophoresis The separation of molecular entities by electric current. electroporation A technique for transfecting cells by applying a high-voltage electric pulse. elongation complex The form of RNA polymerase II that actively carries out basal transcription. elongation factors (EF-Ts, EF-Tu, EF-G) Proteins necessary for the proper elongation and translocation processes during translation at the ribosome in prokaryotes. Replaced by eEFI and eEFI in eukaryotes. endogenote Bacterial host chromosome. endomitosis Chromosomal replication without nuclear or cellular division that results in cells with many copies of the same chromosome, such as in the salivary glands of Drosophila. endonucleases Enzymes that make nicks internally in the backbone of a polynucleotide. They hydrolyze internal phosphodiester bonds. enhancer A eukaryotic DNA sequence that increases transcription of a gene by binding speci c transcription factors. enriched medium See complete medium. enzyme Protein catalyst. epigenetic effect An environmentally induced change in the genetic material that does not cause a change in base pairs. Generally, a phenomenon of differential expression of alleles of a locus depending on the parent of origin. Also applied to an effect in proteins. epistasis The masking of the action of alleles of one gene by allelic combinations of another gene.
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equational division A division, such as the second meiotic division, that does not reduce chromosomal numbers. E (exit) site Site on the ribosome that depleted transfer RNAs pass through during ejection. euchromatin Regions of eukaryotic chromosomes that are diffuse during interphase. Presumably the actively transcribing DNA of the chromosomes. eugenics A social movement designed to improve humanity by encouraging those with bene cial traits to breed and discouraging those with undesirable traits from breeding. eukaryotes Organisms with true nuclei. euploidy The condition of a cell or organism that has one or more complete sets of chromosomes. evolution A change in phenotypic frequencies in a population. evolutionary rates The rate of divergence between taxonomic groups, measurable as number of amino acid substitutions per million years. excision repair A process whereby cells remove part of a damaged DNA strand and replace it through DNA synthesis, using the undamaged strand as a template. exconjugant Each of the two cells that separate after conjugation has taken place. exogenote DNA that a bacterial cell has taken up through one of its sexual processes. exon In a gene that has intervening sequences (introns), a region that is actually exported from the nucleus to be expressed or become part of a transfer or ribosomal RNA. exon shuf ing The hypothesis put forward by Walter Gilbert that exons code for the functional units of a protein, and that the evolution of new genes proceeds by recombination or the exclusion of exons. exonucleases Enzymes that digest nucleotides from the ends of polynucleotide molecules. They hydrolyze phosphodiester bonds of terminal nucleotides. experimental design A branch of statistics that attempts to outline the way in which experiments should be carried out so the data gathered has statistical value. expression vector A hybrid vector (plasmid) that expresses its cloned genes. expressivity The degree of expression of a genetically controlled trait. F1 See lial generation. factorial The product of all integers from the speci ed number down to one (unity). Fanconi s anemia A disease in human beings with a syndrome of congenital malformations; associated with various cancers. fate map A map of the developmental fate of a zygote or early embryo showing the adult organs that will develop from a given position on the zygote or early embryo.
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