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11.7 ADDITIONAL BASE MATERIAL OPTIONS FOR LEAD-FREE APPLICATIONS
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Sections 11.3 through 11.6, including Table 11.6 on the IPC-4101B specification sheets, focused on FR-4 type base materials.These are still the most commonly used material types by far. 6 touches on the history of FR-4 materials and the development of improved versions of FR-4 as requirements have changed. In addition, several non-FR-4 materials compatible with
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SELECTING BASE MATERIALS FOR LEAD-FREE ASSEMBLY APPLICATIONS
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TABLE 11.7 Range of Material Types Compatible with Specific Lead-Free Applications Resin Type Filled, Non-Dicy FR-4 Filled, Non-Dicy FR-4 Phenolic, Filled FR-4 Phenolic, Epoxy FR-4 Phenolic, Epoxy FR-4 Phenolic, Filled Epoxy FR-4 Non-Phenolic, Non-Dicy Halogen Free FR-4 High-Tg, HalogenFree FR-4 Modified Epoxy, Low Dk/Df Low Dk/Df Blend Low Dk /Df Blend/RF Polyimide Tg by DSC, C 140 150 150 175 180 180 200 150 170 180 225 220 260 T260 (min.) >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 >30 T288, (min.) >5 >5 >5 >10 >15 >15 >20 >5 >15 >15 >15 >10 >30 % Expansion, 50 260 C 3.0 3.0 3.4 3.5 3.5 2.8 2.8 3.0 2.8 3.5 2.8 3.6 1.5 Dk@2 GHz 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.2 3.7 4.0 4.0 3.6 3.6 3.0 3.6 3.9 Dk@ 10 GHz 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.0 3.9 4.1 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.0 3.6 3.9 Df @2 GHz 0.020 0.020 0.020 0.021 0.022 0.020 0.013 0.020 0.018 0.011 0.007 <0.0045 0.017 Df @ 10 GHz 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.023 0.024 0.022 0.014 0.022 0.019 0.012 0.008 0.0045 0.018
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lead-free assembly are also available. These include polyimide materials, well known for their thermal reliability and low Dk/Df materials.Table 11.7 indicates the range of material types compatible with specific lead-free applications and their various properties.As discussed throughout this chapter, not all materials are compatible in all applications. However, the properties included in this table should help identify candidate materials for evaluation.
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The question of whether a given laminate material is compatible with lead-free assembly can be very complex due to the many variables in PCB design and manufacturing. In addition, there are variations in lead-free assembly processes. Specifically, peak temperatures, dwell times at peak temperatures, heatup rates, cooldown rates, and rework processes can all vary and complicate this decision. As stated earlier, the temperature range from 235 to 260 C is critical for laminate materials; some materials may be moderately successful at the low end of this range but fail at the higher end. Additional work investigating these assembly-related variables is under way. The existing tools for base material selection for lead-free assembly continue to be developed and improved as more data are collected and analyzed. Critical base material properties with respect to lead-free assembly applications include:
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The decomposition temperature Some minimum value is needed, but above that minimum level, higher values are not always better. Thermal expansion properties Improved materials have reduced levels of thermal expansion.
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Glass transition temperature A higher glass transition temperature delays the onset of rapid thermal expansion and therefore reduces total expansion within a temperature range. Moisture absorption In particular, if PWBs are stored in an uncontrolled or humid environment prior to assembly, drying of boards prior to assembly or selection of a material less prone to moisture-related problems should be considered. Time to delamination T260 and T288 values are a simple way to screen materials for compatibility with lead-free assembly. However, testing at higher temperatures or requiring excessive times may not be necessary.
Balancing these properties with the level of reliability required along with PWB manufacturability and assembly concerns is vital.
REFERENCES
1. Isola Lead-Free Assembly Compatible PWB Fabrication and Assembly Processing Guidelines. 2. Bergum, Erik J., and Humby, David, Lead Free Assembly: A Practical Tool for Laminate Materials Selection, IPC-Soldertec, June 2005. 3. Kelley, Edward, Bergum, Erik, Humby, David, Hornsby, Ron, and Varnell, William, Lead-Free Assembly: Identifying Compatible Base Materials For Your Application, IPC Expo, 2006.
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