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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PCB
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Component side Layer 1 Prepreg Layer 2 Poly Layer 3 Prepreg Layer 4 Poly Layer 5 Prepreg Layer 6 Poly Layer 7 Thickness 98 10 Prepreg Layer 8 Poly Layer 9 Prepreg Layer 10 Poly Layer 11 Prepreg Layer 12 Poly Layer 13 Prepreg Layer 14 Solder side
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FIGURE 13.9 Cross section of 14-layer multilayer printed wiring board, showing a typical inner layer and prepreg material relationship. In this case, to reduce z-axis expansion, the innerlayers are polyimide, while the prepreg material is semicured polyimide. Typical signal, power, and ground layers are also indicated, as well as the thickness of the copper foil for each layer.
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Tin-lead plate .45 .15 1 oz Cu plate 1 oz Cu foil Cap 5 1.5 1 oz Cu 5 1.5 1 oz Cu 7 1.5 1 oz Cu 6 1.5 1 oz Cu 7 1.5 1 oz Cu 7 1.5 1 oz Cu 6 1.5 1 oz Cu 7 1.5 1 oz Cu 7 1.5 1 oz Cu 6 1.5 1 oz Cu 7 1.5 1 oz Cu 5 1.5 1 oz Cu 5 1.5 Cap 1 oz Cu foil 1 oz Cu plate Tin-lead plate .45 .15 Power Pair 6 Signal Signal Pair 5 Signal Signal Pair 4 Signal Power Pair 3 Signal Signal Pair 2 Power Signal Pair 1 Power
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FIGURE 13.10
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Cross section of a discrete-wire PCB. (Courtesy of Icon Industries.)
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Flexible Rigid or Flex-Rigid As the name suggests, these are combinations of flexible PCBs and rigid PCBs in a single unit. The flexible portion of the circuit is made first and included in the lamination process of the rigid portion of the assembly. This process eliminates wiring harnesses and the associated connectors. Applications include avionics and portable equipment such as laptop computers. As a rule, a flex-rigid assembly is more expensive than an equivalent combination of PCBs and cables.
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Backplanes Backplanes are special cases of multilayer PCBs. They tend to contain large quantities of connectors that have been installed using press fit pins. In addition, backplanes are used to distribute large amounts of dc power to the system. This is accomplished by laminating several power planes inside the backplane and by bolting bus bars onto the outside surfaces. Some applications require that active components, such as surface-mount ICs, be soldered to their surfaces. This greatly increases the difficulty of assembly as a result of the need to solder finepitch parts to a large, thick PCB.
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MCMs (Multichip Modules) Multichip modules are essentially miniature PCBs. Miniaturization is achieved by removing components such as ICs from their packages and mounting them directly to the substrate using wire bonds, flip chip, TAB or flip TAB. The motivation for using an MCM is miniaturization, reduction in weight, or a need to get high-speed components as close to each other as
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PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PCB
possible to achieve high-speed performance goals. MCMs usually represent a third level of packaging in a system between packaged components and the carrier PCB. As a result, this additional level of packaging virtually always results in a more expensive, more complex assembly than the equivalent circuits in standard packages. There are several types of MCM package. 13.2.8.1 MCM-L, Multichip Module Laminate. This version of an MCM is manufactured from very thin laminates and metal layers using the same techniques employed in the manufacture of standard PCBs. Features such as holes, lands, and traces are much finer and require tooling similar to that used to manufacture semiconductors. This is the least expensive MCM type to design, tool, and manufacture. The same design tools and methodologies used for PCBs can be used. 13.2.8.2 MCM-C, Multichip Module Ceramic. This version of an MCM is manufactured by depositing conductor layers on thin layers of uncured ceramic material, punching and backfilling holes for vias, stacking the layers, and firing the total to create a hard ceramic multilayer substrate. This is the second least expensive MCM type to design, tool, and manufacture. It has been the workhorse of IBM s large mainframe computers for at least two decades. The same design tools and methodologies used for PCBs can be used. 13.2.8.3 MCM-D, Multichip Module Deposited. This version of an MCM is manufactured by depositing alternating thin films of organic insulators and thin films of metal conductors on a substrate of silicon, ceramic, or metal. The design and manufacturing techniques used for this technology resemble that used to create integrated circuit metallization. The thermal conductivity of the substrate is quite good. Design and fabrication support for MCM-D is limited. 13.2.8.4 MCM-D/C, Multichip Module Deposited and Cofired. This version of an MCM is a combination of a cofired, multilayer ceramic substrate containing the common wiring for a family of modules and deposited conductor and insulation layers containing the personality wiring. It has all of the problems of each technology it uses plus problems related to mismatches in temperature coefficient of the two materials systems. 13.2.8.5 MCM-Si, Multichip Module Silicon. As the name implies, this MCM technology starts with a silicon substrate like that used to make integrated circuits. Conductor patterns are formed using silicon dioxide (glass) as an insulator and aluminum or a similar metal for the wiring patterns in the same manner as is employed to build an integrated circuit. In fact, the same design tools and fabrication tools used to build ICs are used to build MCM-Si modules. A significant advantage of MCM-Si is the fact that the substrate is the same material as the ICs that will be attached to it. Therefore, it is thermally matched to the ICs, ensuring reliable contacts over extremes of temperature. 13.2.8.6 Summary of MCM Technologies. MCM packaging may be seen as a way to achieve higher performance from a collection of high-speed ICs than can be accomplished by mounting them onto a PCB or as a way to reduce size and weight. In reality, higher levels of integration nearly always result in a more economical solution. For all but low-volume, specialty applications, such as aerospace electronics and specialty processors for very high performance equipment, this has proven to be true for quite some time. This is likely to continue to be so for some time as semiconductor technology continues to improve the density of functionality that can be placed on a single IC. One need only examine the progression of microprocessor performance to see this phenomenon at work. When a high-performance product requires integrated circuits made with different processing technologies, such as analog and CMOS or ECL and CMOS, integration does not represent
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