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a reasonable alternative to MCMs. Examples of this type of product are high-performance graphics products and video signal processing equipment.
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A wide range of methods has evolved for attaching components to PCBs. The methods chosen as well as the combinations of methods chosen for a product have a substantial impact on the final cost, ease of assembly, availability of components, ease of test, and ease of rework. The five basic attachment combinations are: through-hole only, through-hole mixed with surface-mount on one side, surface-mount one side only, surface-mount both sides, and surface-mount both sides with through-hole.
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Through-Hole Only All component leads attach to the PCB by being inserted into holes that pass through the PCB. The components may be secured by wave soldering or by pressing into holes that result in an interference fit (press fit). Assembly involves a component placement operation followed by a wave-soldering operation. This method is still the workhorse of the low-cost consumer electronics industry.
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13.3.2 Through-Hole Mixed with Surface-Mount Components such as connectors and PGAs are attached to the PCB with through-hole technology. All other components are mounted using surface-mount packages. This is the most common method used to assemble electronics products. Assembly is a two-step process that involves placing all surface-mount parts and soldering them in place with a solder reflow system, then inserting all through-hole parts and soldering them in place in a wave-soldering operation. Alternatively, the through-holes may be hand-soldered if the quantity is small. 13.3.3 Surface-Mount, One Side Only This type of package is made up of only surface-mount parts all mounted on the same side of the PCB. Assembly is a one-step process that involves placing all components and soldering them in place using some form of solder reflow. 13.3.4 Surface-Mount, Both Sides This type of package contains surface-mount components on both sides. Assembly is a twostep process that involves placing all components on one side and reflow soldering them, followed by placing all components on the other side and reflow soldering them. In addition to more complex assembly operations, designing and testing this type of assembly is much more complex, as parts often share the same area on opposite sides of the PCB, causing conflicts when trying to locate vias and test points. 13.3.5 Surface-Mount, Both Sides with Through-Hole As the name implies, this package type contains surface-mount parts on both sides, as well as through-hole parts such as connectors. In most cases, the surface-mount components on one
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side are passives, such as bypass capacitors and resistors that can withstand being passed through wave soldering. Assembly is a three-step process that involves placing the surfacemount components on the primary side and reflow soldering them. Once this is complete, the secondary-side surface-mount components are glued in place, the through-hole components are inserted, and the PCB is sent through wave soldering. Because of the extra operations and exposure of components on the secondary side to molten solder, this type of assembly is prone to many assembly defects. It is important to note that soldering fine-pitch parts on the secondary side using wave soldering results in excessive solder bridging and should be avoided. In addition, active components, such as ICs, may be damaged by exposure to excessive heating.
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Over time, a wide assortment of packages has been developed to house components. Selecting the correct package type for each component is one of the most important parts of the design process. Package types chosen affect ease of design, assembly, test, and rework, as well as product cost and component availability.
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Through-Hole This class of component is characterized by parts that have wire or formed leads. These leads pass through holes drilled or punched in the PCB and are soldered to lands on the back side or to plating in the holes. This is the original package type used for electronic components. A major benefit of through-hole components is the fact that every component lead passes all the way through the PCB. Because of this, there is automatic access to any PCB layer to make connections. Further, every lead is available on the bottom of the PCB, so test tooling is easy to construct. With the advent of surface-mount components, through-hole is used primarily for connectors and pluggable devices such as microprocessors mounted in PGA packages. Through-hole packages are often preferred for ICs and other components that dissipate large amounts of heat, because of the relative ease with which heat-sinking devices can be fitted to them. In addition, it is much easier to provide a socket for a through-hole device. This eases the task of changing programmable parts and microprocessors when it is necessary to upgrade a system. Caution: Integrated circuits in through-hole packages are becoming difficult to find as they are displaced by surface-mount equivalents and should be avoided in new designs unless a secure supply of components is available for the production life of the design.
Surface-Mount This package type is the mainstream choice for packaging electronic components of every type, including connectors. Its principle characteristic is that all connections between a component lead and the PCB or substrate is made with a lap joint to a pad on the surface of the PCB. This has both advantages and disadvantages. On the advantage side, since there are no holes piercing the PCB, wiring space on inner layers and on the reverse side is not consumed with component lead holes. Because of this, it is usually possible to wire a PCB in fewer layers than would be true with through-hole parts. Another and larger benefit is the fact that surface-mount components are always smaller than their through-hole equivalent, making it possible to fit more parts in a given area. The main disadvantages of surface-mount components stem from the fact that there are no leads to easily grip with instrumentation probes and that there may not be access to the leads
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