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undesired leakage currents and voltages can be controlled (minimum effect) or eliminated (maximum effect).
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Form a Faraday cage around the critical conductive patterns and components using a combination of conductive patterns (frequently called input guarding and guard rings) and shielding enclosures. Keep all unguarded voltages out of the Faraday cage or protected area. Electrically connect the Faraday cage to a low-impedance voltage source that follows the critical (protected) voltage.
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Using Barcode generation for Visual Studio .NET Control to generate, create Quick Response Code image in Visual Studio .NET applications. Guard Rings A Design Method to Control Leakage Currents and Voltages. The control of electrical leakage to the more critical signal terminals/leads can be optimized through the selection of components, various levels of implementing input guarding into the design, and the selection of the materials for the electrical interconnection substrate. Some components provide unconnected, unused, or guard terminals/leads adjacent to the input terminals. Care must be exercised for the balance or trim terminals/leads, as in most cases these terminals are connected (internally) in the component directly into the input differential amplifier circuitry of the component; thus, any undesirable leakage currents or voltages to these terminals/leads may result in undesired operation. Some linear operational amplifiers (op-amps) and other linear components are more suitable for input guarding than others; some have two (or more) unused terminals/leads that are used to improve electrical isolation between the protected terminals/leads in the component itself, as well as the component land pattern and electrical interconnection substrate. The simplest method for providing input guarding to control input leakage currents and voltages is through the use of guard rings of conductive patterns on all layers of PB conductive patterns that surround the terminals/leads and associated circuitry. The guard ring is attached to a low-impedance voltage source that best follows the input signal or, as recommended by some analog IC manufacturers in their application notes, to the metal case of the component. As a result, the input terminals of high-input-resistance, low-biascurrent, low-offset-voltage Op-amps can be guarded from stray electrical leakage currents and voltages.
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Voltage and Ground Distribution Concepts There are a few main concepts for the distribution of voltage(s) and ground in PBs, their assemblies, and other electronic assemblies. In general, most serious PCDs use one or more ground planes for the common electrical connection(s), for the source(s) of electrical power, and for the reference or return electrical signal path.The keys to good voltage and ground distribution systems are:
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Providing a low-impedance voltage and ground distribution system Meeting functional performance product definition design requirements Optimizing EMC
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Depending on the design, the ground system may also be used for the grounding conductor interconnection(s) for the electrical safety and similar compliance requirements. For electrical signal integrity considerations, it is generally desirable to have separate but parallel electrical interconnection networks for the grounded (signal and power) and grounding (electrical safety) conductors. Like ground, voltage distribution for serious PCDs generally consists of one or more voltage planes (or portions thereof), although for some designs routed conductive patterns or buses may be a functionally acceptable option. A bused voltage and ground system may be acceptable for some designs, but they are generally limited to the PCD
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with lower operating frequencies and slower rise and fall times. The voltage and ground distribution and the location and type of bypass capacitors can have a significant impact on EMC and electrical signal integrity. Grounding Concepts. Electrical grounding is one of the most important concepts and probably the least understood aspect of electrical signal integrity and EMC. All electrical conductors, including ground, form very subtle, but active, electrical interconnection network that can significantly compromise the product definition s requirements for electrical signal integrity and EMC. In particular, the grounding system is critical to ensure compliance to functional performance and regulatory requirements. Grounding (and voltage distribution) concepts are a matrix of requirements, concepts, concerns, considerations, and practices. In general, there is no universal solution suitable for all applications. Grounding is considered by some to be an art, which can be supported in that some grounding systems are completely unstructured and the reasons that some systems work, while others do not, are not clear. As a result, there has been an ongoing search to find a set of rules that can be used for the design of grounding systems and, unfortunately, many of the rules are conflicting. For example, a modular modem PCMCIA electronic assembly may have a suitable grounding system for normal telecom line operation. Yet, this may be totally inadequate if a 100-1kA electrical current, coupled through the PCMCIA assembly into the personal computer s electrical grounding system, is induced in the telecom line due to a nearby lightning strike or fallen power line. Similarily, a suitable electrical safety grounding system for power line frequencies may not be suitable near a high-power, high-frequency radio, television, or telecommunications transmitter. The following are some of the major concerns and considerations that are involved in good grounding practices:
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Integration of analog and digital signal converters, especially with more than 12 bits of resolution ground loops and noise High-speed and high-frequency operation ground pull-up and EMC High-speed and high-frequency bus line drivers and receivers major ground pull-up and EMC concerns Low-signal-level analog sensors (transducers) Length of the conductors in the voltage/grounding system as a considerable portion of the electrical wavelength of one of the frequencies of the signal range of EMC When designing a grounding system, consideration of developing a grounding map that identifies all grounding requirements and voltage/current/frequency requirements
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Using Barcode maker for iPad Control to generate, create Code128 image in iPad applications. Grounding Systems. The following is an introduction to several grounding and voltage distribution systems and their electrical characteristics. Single-Point and Point-Source Grounding Concepts. Single-point grounding is a method whereby the grounding electrical interconnection network is connected to ground at a single point at either the source or load end of the electrical interconnection network. The voltage drops between the various grounding nodes is a function of the interconnection network impedances, operating frequency, and current. Point-source or star grounding systems have a single-point grounding location for all electrical loads. The point-source grounding point is connected to another grounding point using a low-impedance bus or grounding conductor. Multiple-Point Grounding Concepts. A multiple-point grounding system may be in the form of a loop or tree-like structure. In a loop grounding system the voltage drops around the loop may vary, depending on the electrical characteristics of each of the loads attached to the grounding loop. In a tree, the grounding system has good voltage regulation and allows leads to be independently attached or removed from the tree without a significant impact on the remaining loads. Ground Planes. Ground planes are the grounding system of choice for most serious PCD requirements. Ground planes can improve the electrical signal integrity of the grounding system
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