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FIGURE 15.4 The same PBA can have a wide range of natural resonances depending on the mounting method, which is why shock and vibration concerns are a critical design consideration.
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E Modulus of elasticity (type GF epoxy-glass) m Poisson s ratio a Longer dimension of the PBA b Narrower dimension of the PBA t Thickness of the PBA W Weight of the PBA including components D= where D is the plate bending stiffness.
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1.378 104 MPa 0.12 (dimensionless) 200 mm 150 mm 1.6 mm 0.25 kg Et 3 12(1 m2)
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M= fn = C0 P0 where fn is the natural resonant frequency.
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Methods of Reinforcement and Snubbers Printed board assemblies are stiffened using one or more methods to raise the natural resonant frequency sufficiently above the shock and vibration threat. The most obvious is to change the method of retaining or mounting the PBA in the next higher level of assembly. Frequently, though, this may not be an acceptable option due to the resources and schedule changes that may be necessary for extensive redesign. However, some simpler modification in the design may meet requirements. Sometimes changing the plug-in PBA guide from a loose supportive guide to a tighter spring-loaded or clamping-type guide may be sufficient. Other methods are to add ribs or stiffeners, additional single-point mounting locations, or snubbers across the surfaces of the PBAs.
REFERENCES
1. Donald R. J. White and Michel Mardiguian, EMI Control, Methodology and Procedures, Interference Control Technologies, emf-emi Control, 4th ed., Gainsville, Va., pp. 5.5 5.6. 2. Ruey-Beei Wu, Resistance Modeling of Periodically Perforated Mesh Planes in Multilayer Packaging Structures, IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, vol. 12, no. 3, September 1989, pp. 365 372. 3. G. L. Ginsberg, Engineering Packaging Interconnection System, Chap. 4 in Clyde F. Coombs, Jr. (ed), Printed Circuits Handbook 3d ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988 pp. 4 17. 4. ANSI-YI4.5 Dimensioning and Tolerancing, American National Standards Institute, New York, (date of current issue). 5. Cyril M. Harris and Charles E. Crede (eds.), Shock and Vibration Handbook, vol. 1, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1961, p. 1 2. 6. Donald B. Barker, Chap. 9, in Handbook of Electronic Packaging Design, Michael Pecht (ed.), Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, 1991, p. 550. 7. Dave S. Steinberg, Vibration Analysis for Electronic Equipment, 2d ed., John Wiley, New York, 1988.
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CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY IN PRINTED CIRCUITS
Mike Jouppi
Thermal Management Inc.,Centennial, Colorado
16.1 INTRODUCTION
One important consideration when designing electronics is to ensure that the electrical components operate at temperatures that will maintain long life and be reliable. Current carrying capacity of the printed circuit board traces is a part of managing the board temperature, which directly impacts the components. (A trace is a copper conductor in a printed circuit board.The terms conductor and trace are used interchangeably for a printed circuit throughout this chapter. Track is another common term for trace or conductor.) Properly sizing the traces for current is necessary to achieve the desired temperature rise at the board level. It is a difficult task to generalize current carrying capacity for all printed circuits and all applications. The only safe way to simplify this task is to overdesign. As technology requires pushing the limits on current levels, as well as using small trace widths and trace spacing, overdesigning is not a solution. Several sets of charts for sizing traces are presented in this chapter. These charts are explained and additional charts are presented. Thermal management of printed circuits often requires an accurate estimate of trace heating. This chapter presents information about conductor sizing charts and trace heating information as an aid to printed circuit design.
16.2 CONDUCTOR (TRACE) SIZING CHARTS
Charts are used to define the size of a trace for a given current level and temperature rise. The temperature rise of a trace is defined as the increase in temperature, above the local board temperature, that the trace reaches when current is flowing through it.The board temperature is similar to the ambient temperature when component power dissipations are low, although when the component power is several watts or more, the board temperature is significantly higher than the ambient temperature, especially in a still air or vacuum environment.
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