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Baseline vs. Internal Plane (0.07" Thick Polyimide) 35 30 Temperature Rise (C) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Baseline
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FIGURE 16.9
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0.02" from 1-oz plane 0.005 from 1-oz. plane Configuration
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Copper plane influence on trace temperature.
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from the trace. The column on the right shows the temperature rise of the trace when it is 0.127 mm (0.005 in.) from the plane. Several key points can be observed when looking at this chart and comparing against the IPC-2221 internal conductor-sizing chart.
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The predicted temperature rise of the same trace using the internal conductor-sizing chart in IPC-2221 is 266 C. The internal IPC chart is conservative for sizing conductors in printed circuit board applications. Significant margin exists in trace sizing if copper planes exist. Design guidelines require a full description of their origin. When multiple variables impact the temperature rise of a trace, the impact of each variable requires definition to improve the level of design optimization. The presence of a single plane has a significant impact on the temperature rise of a trace.
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Trace temperature rise has been characterized with respect to board thickness, copper weight, board material, internal versus external, air versus vacuum, as well as the distance from copper planes. A single copper plane has the most significant impact of all the variables described in this chapter. Guidelines for estimating trace temperature rise when a copper plane is present are as follows:
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Use a baseline chart to calculate the trace temperature for a given current and trace size: The baseline represents the trace temperature rise in a PWB with dielectric only (no internal copper planes). The baseline represents a specific board (dielectric) material and board thickness. (A 1.78 mm thick polyimide PWB, baseline conductor chart is provided in this chapter.) The influence of a copper plane on the baseline trace temperature rise is more significant for thinner boards and boards with lower dielectric thermal conductivity values. The distance from a trace to a copper plane must be known. The closer the trace is to the plane, the lower the temperature rise of the trace. The thickness of the copper plane must be known. As the amount of copper increases, the temperature rise of the trace decreases.
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CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY IN PRINTED CIRCUITS
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T with Cu Plane .070" Thick Polyimide Board 0.60
0.50 Coefficient ( Portion of No Plane TMC T )
1 oz plane .040in from trace 1 oz plane .020in from trace
0.40 1 oz plane .005in from trace 0.30 2 oz plane .005in from trace 0.20
Copyright 2006 Thermal Man Inc.
60 Board Area, in2
FIGURE 16.10 Distance from trace to copper plane.(The copper planes do not take into account the swisscheese effect from vias. The planes are assumed to be continuous solid planes.)
The number of copper planes is not as significant, although the planes should be continuous with very few etched away areas:
The most significant decrease in trace temperature occurs with the introduction of a single plane.
As the number of planes increase, the trace temperature rise decreases, but not as much as the influence from the first plane. The area that the copper plane covers on a specific layer is important. The plane must completely cover the trace in order for it to impact the temperature of the trace. The size of the internal copper plane impacts the amount of heat spreading that can occur:
Below 58 cm2 (9 sq. in.), the impact has not been completely characterized, although the effect is reduced and is observed on the left hand side of the curves in Fig. 16.10.
From 58 cm2 (9 sq. in.) to 258.1 cm2 (40 sq. in.), the effect is increased by approximately 10 percent. Above 40 sq. in., the effect remains the same. The chart shown in Fig. 16.10 is used to determine the reduction in a trace temperature rise as a function of the distance from the trace to a copper plane.
Figure 16.10 represents estimates of temperature rise as a function of copper plane size and distance from trace to plane in a 0.07 in. (1.78 mm) thick polyimide board. The set of curves in Fig. 16.10 is used with the baseline charts, shown in Figs. 16.5 through 16.8. The first step is to calculate a delta T using the appropriate chart from Figs. 16.5 through 16.8.
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