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PLANNING FOR DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND ASSEMBLY
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PWB Relative Price (%) = 0.389 x (Price Index) - 121
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FIGURE 19.15 PWB relative price as a function of the price index.
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with a 0.013 in spacing. The size required a panel layout, as shown in Fig. 19.16a, of six per panel. A reduction of 14 sq. in in the board size would allow eight boards on a 18 in 24 in panel (see Fig. 19.16b). A simple Gate Array ASIC was employed to reduce the small-scale ICs until 14 sq. in of space was freed up. The final optimized PCB had the fabrication factors seen in Table 19.11. The boards were eight up on a panel (Fig. 19.16b) and had a higher producibility by a 18 percent reduction in its complexity and an overall price reduction of 24.7 percent.
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TABLE 19.9 One Company s Fabrication Complexity Makeup Fabrication factors Mat l of construction No. of layers No. of holes Min. trace wd. Gold tabs Annular ring Solder mask Metalization Min. hole dia. Cont. impedance TOTAL POINTS = PWB design #1 FR-4 six Points 49 137 FCM FR-4 Six layers
1655 6 = 9930
0.008 in None 0.010 in 2-sided LPI SMOBC/SSC 0.025 in None
6 0 1 17 69 5 0 374
3001 10,000
6 8 mil None <6 mil 2-sided LPI SMOBC/SSC <20 mil None
PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
TABLE 19.10 One Company s Initial Consumer Board Characterisitics Size No. of Layers No. of Holes Min. Trace Width Tolerance (+/ in) Complexity Index First-Pass Yield Price Index Rel. Price
A=35, H=1,000,L=2,T=.01,TO=.01
519.0 sq. in. Six layers 1,655 0.008 in. 0.003 68.06 90.7% 412.3 + 14.5%
FIGURE 19.16 Fabrication panel layout of the consumer electronics board: (a) the original design; (b) the final layout.
TABLE 19.11 One Company s Final Consumer Board Characteristics Size No. of Layers No. of Holes Min. Trace Width Tolerance (+/ in.) Complexity Index First-Pass Yield Price Index Rel. Price
A=35, H=1,000,L=2,T=.01, TO=.01
43.6 sq. in. Four layers 1,156 0.012 in. 0.003 55.8 (24.0) 96.7% 331.9 10.2%
ASSEMBLY TRADE-OFF PLANNING
The metrics of assembly trade-offs relates factors of process, component selection, and test to assembly prices. Yields and rework are factored into the points of the Assembly Report Card. The point total provides an estimation of the relative prices of assembly and test.
PLANNING FOR DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND ASSEMBLY
Assembly Complexity Matrix The PCB assembler supplies the assembly complexity matrix. This matrix relates various process assembly and test choices that the assembler provides along with component size, orientation, complexity, and various other known qualities to the costs of providing for these design choices. To relate these qualities to the costs, the matrix allocates design points. Typical factors that affect assembly costs are:
One-pass or two-pass infrared reflow Wave solder process Manual or automatic parts placement Odd-shaped parts Part quality level Connector placement Test coverage The ability to diagnose tests Assembly stress testing Repair equipment compatibility
By collecting all the costs associated with assembly, test, and repair and then normalizing these costs with the smallest nonzero value, a matrix such as shown in Table 19.12 can be produced.
TABLE 19.12 Factors
Factors in an Assembly Complexity Matrix Pts 35 8 9 8 Highest 1 pass IR 100% auto <98% 100% Auto Pts 20 5 3 25 Middle 2 pass IR 99% 90% auto 98% 90% Brackets Pts 0 0 0 0 Lowest IR & wave solder >90% auto >90% Post solder assembly
Solder Process Placement Digital Test Coverage Manual Attachment
Example of an Assembly Complexity Matrix An example of the assembly complexity matrix is the Assembly Report Card created by IBMAustin.This complexity matrix has 10 factors that range in points from 0 to 35.The total points can affect the prices from a 30 percent discount to a 30 percent penalty. Table 19.13 illustrates this assembly complexity matrix trade-offs with design points. 19.6.2.1 SMT Assembly Report Card. The IBM Assembly Report Card s13 10 assembly trade-off factors are shown in Table 19.13. The report card was the work of many assembly engineers with the help of the accounting department.The report card was introduced in early 1990s; within two years, through the use of the report card, assembly point scores were averaging around 75 instead of the earlier 50, with its Gaussian distribution. Remember, higher scores indicate more producibility. This effect can be seen in Fig. 19.17. The scores are no longer normally distributed.
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