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impregnating the PTFE film increases Dk and tan d over those of a pure PTFE layer, this composite is at least as good as glass-reinforced PTFE. Because of the conventional resin surface of this material, it can be laminated using conventional methods and materials, allowing the fabrication of ML-PWBs containing a mixture of PTFE and epoxy layers. The resulting hybrid board can contain any symmetrical mix of epoxy and PTFE layers. The high in-plane CTE of the PTFE layer leads to severe warp in any nonsymmetrical stack-up. Hybrid boards are less expensive than pure PTFE boards because they are laminated in a conventional press and they minimize the use of costly PTFE layers. However, the high cost of PTFE and the need for a fluoride etch still makes these boards expensive. The major application for this material is in supercomputer designs that have high-speed circuits requiring enhanced electrical properties mixed with others that operate on FR-4. This approach does not work in applications where a mixture of RF signals and digital logic requires a nonsymmetrical design with low-loss material on one side and standard material on the other. PTFE mixed with a low-Dk ceramic A third approach, in which up to 60 percent ceramic (by weight) is combined with PTFE resin, results in a very interesting material. This material has a low CTE, low tan d, and low Dk, and, by a proper choice of the ceramic, it is possible to have an in-plane CTE that matches that of epoxy. This allows the fabrication of an unbalanced hybrid structure without excessive warp. The high ceramic loading typical of this material minimizes PTFE use and reduces costs. A commercial version of this material is available with a cost in the range of four to five times that of standard FR-4, rather than the 100 times typical of other PTFE options. The only serious drawback of this material is the use of a special process such as plasma etch to ensure hole wall wetting. Success has been reported with using H2 or He mixed with O2 to activate the hole for plating.
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27.2.3.5 Materials with Enhanced Mechanical or Conduction Properties. In cases where the device package (leadless area array with ball grids) is incompatible with the CTE of a standard material, a low-expansion substrate must be used. This can be achieved in several ways. In the past, leadless surface-mount technology (SMT) focused on replacing the woven glass in standard FR-4 with woven quartz or aramid fibers. Although this reduced the expansion of the substrate, both materials were expensive and difficult to process. 27.2.3.5.1 Aramid. A better solution for CTE match is to use a non-woven aramid mat material that is resin-impregnated; it is available with either modified epoxy or polyimide resins. Non-woven aramid has lower in-plane expansion under heat input, and is closer to the in-plane expansion of leadless ceramic chip carriers (LCCCs) or thin small outline packages (TSOPs). A low in-plane expansion reduces the strain on the solder joint, which in turn improves assembly yields and long-term field reliability. As a random fiber, it also provides a more consistent environment for high-frequency signals since the material under the signal at any point along its length has the same effective dielectric constant. (Woven fiberglass-reinforced laminates impart discontinuous effective dielectric constant along the length of the conductor varying between the resin-rich and glassdominant sections of the laminate.) In addition, the interface with the bottom of the conductor is smoother, reducing attenuation of the copper trace. The aramid layer is usually only the outermost layer where the chip is attached, whereas the balance of the layers consists of standard fiber-glass reinforced materials. Aramid-reinforced materials process much like traditional FR-4 and are compatible for mixed dielectric constructions. This material is also very compatible with laser drilling. There are trades-offs to consider with aramid. The total thickness of the board is usually kept low, since the aramid has a high out-of-plane or z-axis expansion. Typically, a thickness of at least 0.015 in. is needed to offset the effective x-y CTE of the balance of the MLB, which in turn means that outerlayer line widths are wider for a 50-ohm impedance. Also to be considered is the lower copper peel strength and high moisture uptake.
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