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29.5.2 Thickness Distribution A formidable challenge facing acid copper plating of printed circuit boards is thickness distribution on the surface of the panel (whether pattern or panel plated) and thickness distribution in the barrel of the hole or the via, namely throwing power. If the throwing power is 100 percent, then plating 1 mil of copper in the hole would result in plating 1 mil on the surface. At 50 percent throwing power, to achieve 1.0 mil in the hole would result in 2.0 mils on the surface, which would limit the etching capabilities in the panel plate and increase the thickness variation in pattern plate. HDI compounds the plating challenges with microvias, small holes, and fine lines. Different approaches are being practiced to resolve the following four plating issues:
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Low-current-density plating Chemically mediated process Electrically mediated process Horizontal conveyorized systems
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Additives in Acid Copper Plating Additives used for bright acid copper plating are divided into three categories: (1) the carrier or suppressor, (2) the additive or brightener, and (3) a leveling component. Each component has a specific role in controlling the quality of the deposit. Polarization curves that show the ensuing current as the voltage is increased are used to study the effects of the various components on the plating system and how they affect the deposit. Figure 29.6 shows a polarization curve where the current is plotted against the voltage. The data can be obtained from a potentiostat setup, shown in Fig. 29.7. Here, we have three electrodes in the plating solution. The first is a counter electrode and is usually made of copper or platinum; the second is the working electrode and is a rotating platinum disk; and the third is the reference electrode, like a double-junction calomel. Voltage is applied between the working and the reference electrodes, and the ensuing current is measured between the working and the counter electrodes.This is the principle upon which cyclic voltametric stripping (CVS)
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FIGURE 29.6 Acid copper: cathodic polarization curve.
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Measured Current Control of Applied Voltage
1. Counter Electrode (Cu or Pt) 2. Working Electrode (Rotating Pt Disk) 3. Reference Electrode (Double-Junction Calomel or AgCl)
FIGURE 29.7
Acid copper: polarization study: three-electrode cell.
is based. CVS equipment is commonly used to assay the additives in the plating solution. A closer look at the polarization curve shows four distinct areas:
Low-current area Here, there is a minimum increase in current as the voltage is increased. Metal deposition area This is an area where there is a significant increase of current with applied voltage. Limiting-current-density area This area is marked by a plateau, where there is no increase of current as the applied voltage continues to rise. Hydrogen evolution part of the curve This is the last area.
The area of most interest when plating, of course, is the area of metal deposition. The slope of this part of the polarization curve can be altered (suppressed or accelerated) by the addition of organic additives to the plating bath. 29.5.4 Carrier/Suppressor Carriers are large-molecular-weight poly-oxyalkyl-type compounds. Figure 29.8 shows the effect of the carrier on the polarization curve. The addition of a carrier alone did not alter the
Copper Stock - 0 ppm ClCopper Stock with 5 ml/l Carrier - 0 ppm ClCopper Stock with 5 ml/l Carrier - 10 ppm ClCopper Stock with 5 ml/l Carrier - 60 ppm Cl-
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -0. 5 3
Current (mA)
-0. 5 0
-0 .1
-0 .15
-0 .3
Potential (Volt)
FIGURE 29.8 Effect of chloride concentration in a copper stock solution with carrier.
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polarization curve; however, when this is done in the presence of 10 ppm of the chloride ion, a marked suppression is observed initially but is not sustained as voltage continues to increase. At 60 ppm of chloride, the suppression is sustained; the result is that it now takes more voltage to produce the desired current. The suppression is a result of the effect of the carrier on the diffusion layer (also referred to as the Helmholtz double layer). The carrier is adsorbed to the surface of the cathode; this results in increasing the thickness of the diffusion layer. The result is better organization. This gives rise to a deposit with a tighter grain structure (see Fig. 29.9). The carrier-modified diffusion layer also improves plating distribution and throwing power, without burning the deposit.
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