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1. Ferric chloride (38 to 42 Baum ) with 3 percent HCl (optional). 2. One part HCl (37 percent) by volume, one part nitric acid (70 percent) by volume, one to three parts water by volume. Etch rate is about 0.003 in/min at 175 F, useful for high 300 to 400 series alloys. 3. Ferric chloride + nitric acid solutions. 4. One hundred parts HCl (37 percent) by weight, 6.5 parts nitric acid by weight, 100 parts water by weight.
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Silver Silver, the least expensive precious metal, has excellent properties, including superior electrical and thermal conductivity, ductility, visible-light reflectivity, high melting point, and adequate chemical resistance. As such, it is widely used throughout the electronics industry. Flexible circuit structures with silver are used in electronic cameras and LED products. Standard image-transfer methods are suitable. Pre-etch cleaning should include a dip in dilute nitric acid. Mixtures of nitric and sulfuric acids are effective etchants. With silver on brass or copper substrates, a mixture of 1 part nitric acid (70 percent) and 19 parts sulfuric acid (96 percent) will dissolve the silver without attacking the substrate. The solutions should be changed frequently to prevent water absorption and the formation of immersion silver on the copper. Etching can be done with a solution containing 40 g chromic acid, 20 mL sulfuric acid (96 percent), and 2000 mL water.35 This is followed by a rinse in 25 percent ammonium hydroxide. Thin films of silver are etched in 55 percent (by weight) ferric nitrate in water or ethylene glycol. Solutions of alkaline cyanide and hydrogen peroxide will also dissolve silver. Use extreme caution. Electrolytic etching is also possible with 15 percent nitric acid at 2 V and stainless-steel cathode.
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The basic process of chemical etching to form features has been studied and modeled extensively. However, the best scientific knowledge can only proceed to an understanding of factors influencing the process. The practical execution of the process to manufacture useful circuits contains elements of experience in the best practice of several processes and choices in the selection of materials and process variations to achieve technically sound, cost-effective, and manufacturable results. In order to make fine-line circuit products, it is necessary to understand the process fundamentals so that the limitations may be understood and then overcome. The intent of this section is to briefly review the underlying science and discuss factors and practices for precision etching.
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The Image 34.7.1.1 Phototools. It seems obvious that artwork is the first defining step of the image. If the phototool lacks definition, integrity, or dimensional stability, there is no possibility of improving the image in subsequent processing. The edge definition and contrast are particularly important. Images of multiple pulses or spots must be overlapped so that there is minimum waviness of edges. As the feature to be resolved becomes smaller, the image must have better and cleaner integrity. It is desired that the artwork be at least an order of magnitude (factor of 10) better than the final tolerance required for the final product. Therefore, if the line tolerance is 0.0001 in, then the artwork should be 0.00001 in.
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34.7.1.2 Image Integrity. The effectiveness of the image translated from the artwork/ exposure process can be best achieved by optimization through all of the processing. Surface preparation, resist application, exposure, handling, development, and cleanliness must be maintained sufficiently to produce images with proper integrity. Image integrity may be gauged periodically with a resource such as the Conductor Analysis Technologies etch evaluation protocol. Defects such as shorts and opens have been determined to be related to resist integrity, and persistent linewidth repeating patterns may be image related. General concepts indicate that the thinner the resist, the shorter the light path; and the less optical interface layers between the light source and the copper surface, the better fidelity of the image to the phototool. However, constant improvement in film, exposure, and phototool products makes fine-image options dependent on proper optimization and constancy of technique and cleanliness as well as choice of technology. 34.7.2 Basics of Processing 34.7.2.1 Diffusion The Controlling Mechanism. In Sec. 34.4, the chemical reactions of the etching process are discussed. In order to understand the formation of the actual shapes of the foil cross section, the influences of diffusion and fluid flow must be understood.32 As a result of the etching reaction at the reaction point on the copper surface, a complex ion concentration is built up and active etching chemicals are depleted. In order to complete the reaction, this complex ion must move through a static boundary layer into a place where there is fresh etchant supplied to complete the reaction and carry away the etched product. (See Fig. 34.3.) This boundary-layer shape is dependent on the specific shape of the resist and etching wall, the fluid flow over the surface, and the critical fluid flow in the channels formed by the resist and the etched side wall. 34.7.2.2 Fluid Flow Contribution. Examination of Fig. 34.3 shows that the contour of the boundary layer and its thickness vary with the shape and narrowness of the channel. If the surface is flat with no resist image, the boundary layer is thin and only dependent on the fluid properties and velocity across the surface. On the other hand, with resist images forming channels with depth, and the etched copper forming further channels, it is easy to see how the flow of fluid in the channel can be much different than the surface flow. In order to make matters even more confusing, the circuit traces and resist images form actual channels in the surface.
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