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3 Time = 0 s t = 1.4 1-mil Resist
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3 1-mil Resist
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R = 3.0 Time = 90 s T = 2.9 B=6
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1.95 3.0
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1.5 2.4
FIGURE 34.5
Line formation development.
Fine-Line Formation Etching Requirements 34.7.4.1 Fine-Line Definition. The term fine line is a relative one because the current state of processing by conventional available technology is constantly improving. Therefore, fine lines can be considered the next extension of capability that requires precision higher than that afforded by available technology. This is understood by means of statistics and
ETCHING PROCESS AND TECHNOLOGIES
standard gauging tools. The measure Cp (simple process capability) evaluates the variability of output results (6s, where s is the standard deviation of the linewidth distribution) to the specification limits of variation.40 The data for the performance can be obtained by using a standardized test vehicle (IPC-9251) or a commercial testing program by CAT (see Chap. 36). In general, fine lines can then be defined as the linewidth point at which yield performance begins to drop below the run of production. Note that it is up to the customer and shop to determine what product line variation (usually a percent of line dimension) is allowed. It is apparent that this definition depends on the available technology and operation of the individual shop. 34.7.4.2 Limitations Practical Rule of Thumb. It is useful to have a practical limit to express an understanding of where the technologies may limit performance. In the case of etched linewidth, it has been expressed that the total of the resist thickness plus the etched foil thickness would limit the gap between the etched features. Therefore, for 1.2-mil dry-film resist over 1-oz copper foil, the total thickness is 2.6 mil. This could be used as a practical limit for both the trace and gap. Further limits can be determined by the undercut and etch factor experienced for the same type of etched features. Therefore, using the R/B = 1 data from Table 34.2 (U = 0.525 mil), a 2.6-mil resist line would be 2.6 mil at the trace bottom and would have a 1.5-mil etched top reduction, leaving only a 1.1-mil top surface. It must then be determined if these dimensions (with allowance for variations) are sufficient for the design functionality. 34.7.4.3 Thinner Is Better. In general, it follows that thinner foil and thinner resist allow for smaller features. However, if thin foil (9 mm, 1 4 oz) is used, the traces may be plated to achieve better current capability. Thin resist may be used, but the image may be susceptible to handling damage or damage in the process equipment. However, for coated resists of 0.4 mil and 1 4-oz. foil (0.35 mil), the result could indicate a limit of 0.75 mil (19 mm). In fact, there has been a process using 3- and 5-mm foil to produce 30-mm line- and spacewidth patterns with 14 mm additional plated copper (total trace height of 17 and 19 mm). This method uses both panel and pattern plating.41 The original foil was etched from thicker commercial foil laminate to the working thickness. 34.7.4.4 Changing the Microchannel Flow. As previously explained, the flow in the microchannels surrounding the features is critical in achieving uniform and accurate etching results. There is a unique process development using fibers to affect localized fluid mixing in these channels.42 This approach requires specific patented equipment and processing methods.43 Reported results down to 50-mm (2-mil) lines and spaces in 1-oz (34-mm) copper have been produced with 1.4-mil (37-mm)-thick resist. This is a very unique and important result because conventional foil and resist technology can be used to make features significantly smaller than conventional capability through improved fluid application mechanics. 34.7.4.5 Beyond Fine HDI Impacts. High-density interconnect (HDI) technology involves several technology changes to form the circuitry. The highlight, as the name implies, is small via structures made in a layer-by-layer methodology with a built-up thin insulator and thin foil structure. To achieve the interconnection, thin and precisely controlled traces are required. The technologies, such as the two previous items, are becoming available to attack the needs of the products. As layer counts increase, the accumulating yield implications are significant, so that each process must produce minimum defects. For etching, one of the challenges is to make the resist conform to the surface which forces the structural materials and processes to engage planarity of the end stage process as an issue. Etching capability requires improving the precision, stability, and capability of processing. The flowchart in Fig. 34.6 graphically illustrates the effects required for etching concerns and approaches to address these.44 It is significant that there are no new concerns added to previous discussions.
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