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FIGURE 4.13
Capacitors (decoupling only) become vias dropping down to a common (distributing planar) layer Bottom electrode
The physical transition from discrete passives (top) to integrated passives (bottom).
Thin-film passive components rely on deposition and photolithography to define conductive, resistive, and dielectric materials physically that produce a desired electrical response.3 Integrated resistors are fabricated by depositing and patterning a layer of thin-film or thick-film
ADVANCED COMPONENT PACKAGING
TABLE 4.1 Characteristics of Typical Tantalum Nitride and Nichrome Resistors Resistor material characteristic Sheet resistance Sheet resistance tolerance Temperature coefficient of resistance Resistor drift (1000 h at 150 in air) Resistor tolerance after anneal and laser trim
Tantalum nitride 20 150 / 100 / (typical) 10% of nominal value 75 + 50 ppm/ C (typ.) 0 25 ppm/ C (anneal) <1000 ppm 0.10% standard 0.03% (bridge trim)
Nichrome 25 300 / 100 200 / (typical)
10% of nominal value 0 + 50 ppm/ C 0 + 25 ppm/ (anneal) <1000 ppm (anneal) <200 ppm (sputter/ann.) 0.10%
resistive material in series with an interconnect line on an insulating substrate. Table 4.1 gives some characteristics of typical tantalum nitride and nichrome resistors. The integration of capacitors into interconnect substrates is largely driven by three applications: decoupling of ICs from power supplies, analog functions such as those in radio frequency (RF)/wireless, and termination of transmission lines. A wide variety of dielectric materials can be used to build integrated capacitors. There are two broad classifications of dielectrics paraelectrics and ferroelectrics and they have very distinct electrical properties, the most significant being the dielectric constant. Some of the dielectric materials that can be used to fabricate integrated capacitors are listed in Table 4.2, along with their composition and dielectric constant.
TABLE 4.2 Dielectric Material Candidates for Application in Integrated Capacitors Paraelectric (P) or Ferroelectric (F) F F F F F F F F F F F F p P P P
Material Silicon monoxide Silicon dioxide Silicon nitride Silicon carbide Aluminium oxide Aluminium nitride Tantalum oxide (a) Tantalum oxide (h) Titanium oxide Diamond-like-carbon BCB Polyimide Barium strontium titanate Lead zirconate titanate BPZT Barium titanate
Composition SiO SiO2 Si3N4 SiC Al2O3 AIN Ta2O5 Ta2O5 TiO2 sp2 and sp3 carbon Organic Organic BaSrTiO3 PbZrxTi-xO3 Ba0.8Pb0.2(Zr0.12Ti0.88)O3 BaTiO3
Dielectric constant 4.5 6.8 4 5 6 7 20 45 6 10 8 10 25 50 10 100 4 6 2.7 3 4.5 up to 1000 up to 2000 up to 3000 up to 5000
Integrated inductors are the easiest of the IPs to fabricate since they are usually spirals of the conductor material. Also, since inductors are magnetic devices, they pose an integration problem not shared by resistors and capacitors: They perform best when there is a sufficient volume of space to allow their magnetic fields to be unimpeded by other structures. As a
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