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Finally, archived process data are useful in an investigation of field failures. The traceability of the troubled product to the exact process parameters used on the assembly line at that time, material lots, operators, and so on can be accessed; these data are invaluable for the follow-up root-cause analysis, particularly in the case of high-valued, high-consequence electronics systems (e.g., military equipment, space and satellite hardware, as well as medical and automotive electronics). Understanding the circumstances under which the defective product was made can also provide insight into implications regarding long-term reliability and specifically warranty costs versus liability and the need to implement a product recall. The need to access information quickly as part of assembly operations extends beyond process and inventory control. Peripheral information such as equipment software and operations manuals must also be quickly accessible. The ready availability of boot-up software and instructions minimizes the downtime required to reestablish a product line or effect repairs on a malfunctioning machine. Once the need for a network has been determined, the locations of terminals, servers, and information storage equipment must be established. Local area networks (LANs) and the worldwide web (WWW, or Internet) can link access points located in adjacent rooms or halfway around the world. However, it is critical that the network uses consistent computer and data transmittal protocols in order to provide uninterrupted, information handling in an efficient manner. For example, serial communication via an RS-232 port is relatively common, but too slow for most machine applications. Ethernet communication via transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) is a preferred method because most equipment suppliers offer this network option. The TCP/IP method allows computers to share resources, no matter whether the operating system is for an Apple , a version of the Microsoft operating system for PCs, or the UNIX operating system. Also, the Semiconductor Equipment Communication Standard (SECS)/Generic Equipment Model (GEM) is widely used as the interface between the host computer and assembly machines. Lastly, the need for efficient network communications is particularly acute with the advent of Pb-free solders. In the case where OEMs as well as contract manufacturing service (CMS) companies are assembling both Sn-Pb and Pb-free technologies, it is essential to control all aspects of the assembly process with precision. In fact, process control extends beyond simply certifying that the reflow, wave, or soldering iron correctly reflect the higher soldering temperatures. It must also make certain that components and circuit boards have been delivered to the appropriate process line having the correct surface finishes and/or MSLs. Also, process control must establish that other factors, such as flux type and cleaning procedures that may be unique to the Pb-free process, are being used on the appropriate product line.
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The selection of assembly process equipment is an extensive undertaking for the manufacturing engineer. The three principle variables are equipment utilization, costs, and physical plant requirements. These three areas are listed in order of consideration, not in the order of importance. The analysis behind equipment selection can be very complex, given the wide variety of product designs, potential automation options, and access to worldwide labor markets. Unfortunately, the failure to consider thoroughly the details underlying any one of these three factors can result in a significant financial burden, lost time to market, and poor product quality/reliability for the OEM or CMS. The following sections provide relatively general discussions of these three areas. The reader is referred to many excellent texts on the topic of manufacturing engineering, as well as source books that specifically address assembly process equipment for electronics manufacturing.
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Equipment Utilization Equipment utilization refers to two aspects of the equipment. The first aspect is the operational time during which the machine is actually performing its intended function. The second aspect is production volume (expressed as parts or assemblies per unit time) provided by the machine while it is in operation. The consequences of operational time can be considered as follows: When the machine is performing its intended function, it is making product and as such is making a profit for the company. On the other hand, when a machine is idle, not only is it not making product (or profit), it may be losing money for the company. Those monetary losses result from wasted electricity and other utilities while the machine is on standby, labor costs for idle operating personnel, continued draw-down on the maintenance interval, and overall loss the equipment lifetime. Next, equipment utilization is discussed in terms of throughput or product volume. It should be noted that the general approach is nearly the same for both Sn-Pb and Pb-free technologies. Only the specific cost factors may differ slightly between the two cases. A determination of equipment utilization requires that the appropriate metrics be defined that accurately reflect the machine activity. For example, in the case of component placement machines, the utilization metric may be components placed per unit time or it may be the number of stuffed circuit boards that are completed per unit time. Printed circuit boards or finished assemblies per unit time are the typical metrics for paste printing and reflow furnaces, respectively. For example, component placement rates are expressed as, components per hour (CPH). Some manufacturing engineers prefer to analyze utilization in terms of time per product unit, which is the inverse of production rate. Such an approach would be exemplified by measuring the time required to print the paste on, or to stuff, a single circuit board. It is important to select a metric that is most appropriate for the machine and the products that are processed in it. Moreover, the metric should allow the process development engineer to monitor the performance of the machine process accurately; it can also be used to compare specifications between different equipment brands for a procurement activity. Different methodologies can be used to exercise an equipment utilization analysis. The details of these techniques are many and beyond the scope of this text. Nevertheless, it is important to be familiar with several key attributes that are used to make utilization assessments. Descriptive definitions of several attributes are shown below:
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Theoretical throughput is the output of a machine based upon its underlying design. Actual throughput is the output of the machine for the particular product line or application. This value is always less than the theoretical value. Utilization or utilization efficiency is the ratio of actual throughput to theoretical throughput. Operation time is the total time during which the equipment may be required to operate. For example, it may be an eight-hour shift or it may be 24 hours if three shifts are running in the factory. Equipment uptime is the time that the machine is available to perform its task; it may not necessarily be performing the task. Therefore, this time period takes into account the various contributions to downtime, such as preventive maintenance, unexpected breakdowns, resupply of commodities, and so on. Productive time is the time during which the machine is actually performing its task.
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These various attributes can be further broken down as the need arises; for example, several factors can account for loss of equipment uptime, including scheduled maintenance versus unexpected machine failures, commodity resupply, etc. These attributes are reduced to mathematical variables that are used in equations to calculate the performance of a particular machine. However, the assembly process for electronic circuit boards is comprised of several machines or cells that are in series. Therefore, once the
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