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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
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R. Boulanger is acknowledged for contributions to this chapter, which is based on Assembly Processes, Printed Circuits Handbook, 5th ed., Clyde E. Coombs (ed.), 2001, Chap. 40. The author also wishes to thank M. Dvorack of Sandia National Laboratories for his careful review of the chapter.
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CONFORMAL COATING
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41.1 INTRODUCTION
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Once a circuit card assembly (CCA) has been fully assembled and tested, it often needs to be protected from the environments in which it will ultimately be used. Moisture, salt, dirt, fungus, and a variety of other contaminants as well as mechanical shock and vibration will cause failure on an unprotected assembly. The CCA s last line of defense against the elements is a thin layer of coating that conforms to the shape of all the part leads, solder joints, and other complex features on the completed CCA. This conformal coating (or flow coating) is applied as liquid to the fully assembled CCA, and is cured in place to form a protective layer of insulation for the assembly. This chapter presents:
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An overview of the five basic conformal coating types Preparatory steps necessary to ensure a successful coating process Various methods of applying conformal coating Repair and rework processes Design guidance on when and where coating is required, and which physical characteristics and properties are important to consider
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41.1.1 Objectives and Applications for Conformal Coatings Besides protecting the CCA from the elements, conformal coating also provides:
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Mechanical support for components during mild shock and vibration Electrical insulation for high-voltage components, especially at altitude Chemical resistance Prevention of short circuits due to tin whisker growth from pure tin-plated part leads and cases
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Because of the extra cost involved with the cleaning, coating, curing, and touchup operations, conformal coating was usually reserved only for equipment that required high reliability, such as military and aerospace electronics, and equipment that needed to operate in severe environments. With the introduction of automated application robots and ultraviolet (UV) curable chemistries, conformal coating has become more common.
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
Overview of Types of Conformal Coatings Conformal coating materials are available in five basic chemistries, each with multiple application methods and several drying/curing options. As such, no one material will fit every application, but the wide variety will allow the designer to select a material that meets most technical, budgetary, and manufacturing needs. The various coatings and their characteristics are summarized in Table 41.1. The five basic chemistries are:
Urethane This coating has good moisture and chemical resistance and good electrical insulation. Silicone Being soft and having good adhesion, silicone is useful over a wide temperature range. Epoxy This coating is tough, durable, and very chemically resistant. Acrylic Acrylic is easy to apply and remove. Para-xylylene This very thin, pinhole-free coating is vapor deposited instead of being applied as a liquid.
More information on the less common types of conformal coating may be found in IPCHDBK-830.
Environmental Issues The predominant environmental issue with coatings was the use of solvent thinners to aid the application process. Most coatings are available in low-solvent or zero-solvent formulations, so that the emission of solvents can be reduced or eliminated. The change to lead-free solders and plating has produced an increase in the use of conformal coatings, since conformal coating has been shown to prevent tin whiskers (see Chap. 29 on tin plating) from causing short circuits, and is used for that purpose in types of products that have not been coated before. The higher-temperature lead-free soldering processes are irrelevant to the conformal coating step, since the coating is applied after the soldering process.
TYPES OF CONFORMAL COATINGS
The most commonly used types of conformal coatings include:
Urethane (Type UR) Silicone (Type SR) Epoxy (Type ER) Acrylics (Type AR) Para-xylylenes (Type XY)
41.2.1 Urethane (Type UR) Urethanes are relatively easy to apply with dip, spray, or brush. Cure times (other than UVcurable) range from a few hours for two-part heat curable, to several days for a single-part room temperature cure. Typical application is .001 to .005 in. thick. They are often used for space applications due to their low outgassing characteristics.
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