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Create QR Code in Software Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.

Copyright 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. Click here for terms of use.
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It is incumbent on the PCA process engineer to understand the materials properties and phenomena that influence the soldering process and the reliability of the finished assembly. A basic understanding of mechanics, thermodynamics, metallurgy, and chemistry and how they apply to a finished solder joint is required for good PCA process engineering. The process engineer should influence product design for best manufacturability and reliability and also assemble boards with the highest reliability possible given the board design, materials variables (surface finishes, solder, solder flux, etc.), and components that comprise the bill-ofmaterials. Additionally, there are certain critical rules one could follow for incoming printed circuit board cleanliness, solder purity, etc. These are best described in standards documents, such as those published by the IPC. There are also abundant pitfalls in soldering. Too much gold in tin-lead solder will cause solder-joint embrittlement. Too high a process time or temperature can have the same effect on solder joints. Contamination of tin-bismuth solder joints with lead (Pb) can cause joint failure. The residues left by some fluxes can be corrosive. Electrochemical migration induced by flux corrosion products is a common mode of circuit failure that is difficult to pinpoint by electrical testing. Dendritic filaments can form between two board features of differing electrical potential. Because these microscopic dendrites have limited current-carrying capability, they may act as miniature fuse links that may break and re-fuse, making the root cause of electrical failure quite difficult to diagnose and locate. Thus, there are many variables associated with circuit board assembly, and the process engineer has to rely on science and engineering fundamentals in order to contribute to intelligent PCA design and defect-free assembly.
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The properties of an alloy are dependent on its constituent metals and the ratio of the number of atoms of one constituent to the atoms of the other. Variations in these atomic ratios result in alloys of vastly different properties that are exploited to suit a particular application. Melting points can be adjusted, as can hardness, tensile strength, shock resistance, etc. In trying to achieve a suitable melting point, there are always trade-offs, and other material properties may degrade to the point that the alloy may not be suitable for its end-use application. Such is the case in the search for lead-free alloy substitutes. To date, no direct replacements approximate the properties of the well-understood standard of eutectic Sn-Pb (Sn63) solder. In most cases, liquidus temperatures (the temperatures at which a material goes from solid to liquid) of the Pb-free solder alloys are higher than that of eutectic Sn-Pb. As mentioned previously, this imparts many changes to process, process equipment, printed wiring board (PWB) laminates, and electronic components. Families of alloys that are created from two or more metals in different ratios are called alloy systems. Tin-lead (Sn-Pb) is one such system, available in any number of compositions (50Sn-50Pb, 60Sn-40Pb, 10Sn-90Pb, etc.). Some solder alloys are composed of two elements. These are binary alloys such as tin-lead Sn-Pb or tin-bismuth (Sn-Bi). Others are ternary systems such as tin-silver-copper (Sn-Ag-Cu), which is also commonly referred to as SAC (for the S in Sn [tin], the A from Ag [silver], and the C from Cu [copper]. SAC305 is an abbreviation for Sn-3.0 wt percent Ag-0.5 wt percent Cu. Similarly SAC3807 is an abbreviated form of Sn-3.8 wt percent Ag-0.07 wt percent Cu. Quaternary alloys are composed of four elements (e.g., Sn-Ag-Bi-Cu) and pentanary alloys (e.g., Sn-Ag-Cu-In-Sb) are composed of five. The latter is least understood; binary systems are best understood and easiest to formulate. Some of the small differences in compositions (0.5 wt percent) as seen in ternary, quaternary, and pentanary systems are difficult for solder vendors to control accurately during formulation. Also, in wave soldering, where the solder pot contents are in constant contact with metals from component leads and circuit board surface finishes, materials will be leached into the molten charge in the solder pot and will effect solder composition over the long term. Minor constituents of a solder may be depleted more quickly during wave soldering.
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