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HOT-GAS SOLDERING
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Hot-gas soldering relies upon a heated stream gas heated to effect reflow. This noncontact, directed-energy method is most suited to bonding surface-mount components. Although hot-gas soldering has been around for years and after numerous machine offerings, it is not a popular method for soldering despite its evolutionary improvements. Instead, it has made its mark in the area of component rework removal of previously soldered devices from a circuit board and replacement of same.
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One disadvantage of this soldering method is that the thermal energy is not well localized. Most machines typically emit a hot-gas jet too large to be isolated to reflow only the device of interest. The gas jet, once impinged upon the board and component leads, is deflected and its backwash can be problematic. It may cause unwanted reflow of previously formed joints, especially on closely spaced adjacent components. This problem is typically overcome by the use of baffles that are either applied to adjacent components or by a singular baffle that confines the gas jet to the component to be soldered. Hot-gas soldering nozzles are available in a variety of forms.The simplest of nozzles is the single orifice, which can be translated around the entire periphery of a component (see Fig. 47.41a). Some machines offer a double translatable nozzle assembly that can solder two opposing sides of a component simultaneously (see Fig. 47.41b).
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FIGURE 47.41 Hot-gas soldering nozzles: (a) A programmable moving nozzle translates hot gas in x-y axes; (b) double nozzles, each programmable, allow simultaneous soldering of all four sides of a component.
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Solder can be applied to the board as a paste, solid pre-form, or solder-coated pad. In all cases, the component must be held down during the soldering process to ensure contact of component leads with bonding pads. Proper gas pressure, temperature, nozzle translation speed, and flux are required to effect joint formation. Otherwise, the same reflow considerations are required for this technique as for any other. Heating ramp rate, solder paste preheating, peak temperature, liquidus duration, etc., must be observed for successful joint formation and joint reliability considerations. A thermocouple-instrumented profile board populated with components is needed to determine the proper soldering profile. Adding thermocouples to adjacent solder joints is recommended to ensure that the soldering profile will not inadvertently re-reflow neighboring components.
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ULTRASONIC SOLDERING
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This method relies on a heated, ultrasonically vibrated soldering tip that simultaneously melts and agitates the solder (Fig. 47.42). The ultrasonic energy is transferred from the soldering tip through the molten solder droplet beneath it and ultimately to the component lead and circuit
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FIGURE 47.42 The ultrasonic soldering iron is composed of four main components: an ultrasonic transducer; a horn for concentrating and directing ultrasonic energy; a resistance heater; and the soldering tip, which emits both thermal and ultrasonic energy.
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board pad. The high-energy agitation of the solder droplet helps to cleanse bond-inhibiting materials from the solder and solder-metal interfaces (component lead and bonding pad). If soldering temperature is appropriate, any exposed solderable metal surfaces are rendered wettable by this technique. Ultrasonic soldering precludes the need for chemical fluxing agents. Aluminum and other difficult-to-join metals can be soldered by this method. The viability of this technique has been well proven on a commercial scale in the manufacture of air-conditioner heat exchangers.27, 28 Ultrasonic soldering has also been applied as a batch or continuous mass reflow process. In these instances, the molten solder is ultrasonically agitated while the assembly to be soldered is immersed in it. Similar arrangements have been made for ultrasonically vibrating the part while dipping it in a molten bath or wave of solder. These mass processes are more common for non-electronic assembly. Care must be taken in ultrasonic soldering to tune the tip amplitude and/or frequency to the mass of the system being soldered. Overagitation results in excessive cavitation and splashing of the liquid solder. This generates solder balls, which could short finer-spaced leads or pads. Additionally, ultrasonic agitation increases the dissolution rate of any soluble metals into the solder at any given temperature, which may degrade solder-joint strength. This technique can be useful for the repair of opens or the installation of new or changeorder components onto completed circuit assemblies. Because no flux is required, a previously cleaned board will stay clean through repair or upgrading operations. This technique is applicable to all peripherally leaded surface-mount components that are not susceptible to ultrasonic energy damage. It can also accommodate through-hole device soldering. Equipment availability is limited, with only a few manufacturers worldwide. Several past and recent publications provide a comprehensive review of this technology s applicability and attributes.29, 30, 31, 32
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