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FIGURE 6.7 Resin mixing, aging, and treating.
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Next the cloth is pulled through a series of heating zones. These heating zones commonly utilize forced air convection, infrared heating, or a combination of the two. In the first set of zones, solvent used to carry the resin system components is evaporated off. Subsequent zones are dedicated to partially curing the resin system, or B-staging the resin. Finally, the prepreg is then rewound into rolls or cut into sheets. A number of process controls are required in this operation.The concentrations of the resin system components must be controlled and the viscosity of the resin system maintained within acceptable limits. Tension on the cloth as it is pulled through the treater is also important, for among other reasons, it is vital not to distort the weave pattern of the cloth. Control of the
Raw glass unwind
Oven
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Tension controls Tension controls Resin application/coating
FIGURE 6.8 Treating fiberglass cloth with resin.
INTRODUCTION TO BASE MATERIALS
resin-to-glass ratio or resin content, the degree of cure of the resin and cleanliness are also critical. Because the resin system at this point is only partially cured, prepregs must typically be stored in temperature- and humidity-controlled environments. Temperature, for obvious reasons, could affect the degree of cure of the resin and therefore its performance in laminate or multilayer circuit pressing. Since moisture can affect the performance of many curing agents and accelerators, not to mention the performance of the resin system during lamination or press cycles, humidity is also important to control during prepreg storage. Absorbed moisture that becomes trapped during lamination cycles can also lead to blisters or delaminations within the laminate or multilayer circuit.
FIGURE 6.9 Prepreg after treating with resin.
Laminate Manufacturing The process of copper clad laminate manufacturing begins with the prepreg material. Prepregs of certain fiberglass cloth styles and specific resin contents are combined with the desired copper foils to make the finished laminate. First, the prepregs and copper foils are sheeted to the desired size. Figure 6.10 shows an automated copper-sheeting process. These materials are then laid up in the proper sequence to produce the desired copper clad laminate. Figures 6.11 and 6.12 are examples of an automated build-up process where the prepreg and copper foil materials are combined prior to being pressed together. Several of these individual sandwiches of prepreg and copper foil are stacked on top of each other, typically separated by stainless steel plates, although other separator materials, including aluminum, can also be used. These stacks are then loaded into multi-opening lamination
FIGURE 6.10
Sheeting of rolls of copper foil.
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FIGURE 6.11 Automated build-up of copper and prepreg.
FIGURE 6.12
Automated build-up of copper and prepreg.
Top plate (optional) Laminate book w/copper foil
Heated press platen Lagging material
Press plate Lagging material Heated press platen Hydraulic rams
FIGURE 6.13 Laminate pressing.
Carrier plate
INTRODUCTION TO BASE MATERIALS
FIGURE 6.14 Lamination press with multiple openings. (Photo Courtesy of Polyclad Laminates, Inc.)
presses (see Figs. 6.13 and 6.14), where pressure, temperature, and vacuum are applied. The specific press cycle used will vary depending upon the particular resin system, the degree of cure of the prepregs and other factors. The presses themselves have many platens that can be heated by steam or hot oil that flows through the platens, or they can also be heated electrically. Process controls in the lamination/pressing process are also critical. Cleanliness in the manufacturing environment and cleanliness of the steel separator plates are critical in achieving good surface quality and in avoiding embedded foreign material within the laminate. Control of the temperature rise during lamination will provide the desired amount of resin flow, while control of the cooldown rate can impact warp and twist. The length of time that the laminate is above the temperature required to initiate the curing reaction will determine the degree of cure, as will the degree to which the actual temperature exceeds this temperature. While these descriptions of prepreg and laminate manufacturing give a simple description of the processes used, it is important to understand that there are many variables that influence the quality and performance of the finished products. In addition, many of these variables interact with each other, meaning that a change in one may influence others and may require adjustments to these other process variables. In summary, prepreg and laminate manufacturing is much more complex than it appears at first glance.
Direct Current or Continuous Foil Manufacturing Continuous foil or direct current manufacturing is an alternative method used to manufacture copper clad laminates (see Fig. 6.15). Prepregs are still used in this process, however, the lay-up and pressing operations are somewhat different. In this process, the copper foils are not sheeted, but kept in rolls. To start, copper foil with the side to be bonded to the prepreg facing up, is laid
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