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(b) 2116 Cloth (a) 1080 Cloth
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(c) 7628 Cloth
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FIGURE 7.17 The three most common fiberglass cloths used in materials for printed circuits.
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circuit board that this coupling agent improves the resin to glass adhesion both during the circuit manufacturing process (for example, in mechanical drilling) as well as within the actual end-use environment of the circuit. The coupling agent also plays a role in long-term CAF resistance, which is discussed in Chap. 9. A variety of these compounds are commercially available, with the specific choice primarily driven by the type of resin to be applied to the fiberglass cloth. Figure 7.18 provides examples of silane coupling agents.
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O (CH3O)3 Si R CH CH2 GLASS(Si) O GLASS(Si) O GLASS(Si) O (CH3O)3 Si R NH2 Bonding to Glass Cloth Bonding to Resin Si Si Si i R R R Z Z Z
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FIGURE 7.18 Examples of silane coupling agents.
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BASE MATERIAL COMPONENTS
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Other Reinforcements While woven fiberglass cloth makes up the overwhelming majority of the reinforcements used for printed circuit base materials, other types can be used exclusively or in combination with woven glass fabric. These other reinforcements include the following. 7.5.4.1 Glass Matte. Compared to woven cloths, glass matte reinforcement exhibits a more random orientation. Chopped strand matte consists of fiberglass strands that have been chopped into 1- to 2-inch lengths and distributed evenly. Continuous strand matte, as the name implies, consists of continuous strands of fiberglass in a random, spiral orientation. Glass matte is used in the core of CEM-3, which is used in relatively unsophisticated products. 7.5.4.2 Aramid Fiber. As opposed to the inorganic chemistry of fiberglass reinforcements, aramid fibers consist of aromatic polyamide organic compounds, and therefore exhibit different properties. The unique properties of aramid fibers can offer advantages in specific highperformance printed circuits and laminate-based multichip modules (MCM-L). For example, aramid fiber-reinforced materials are sometimes used in microvia applications since they are easily ablated by plasma or laser. Other interesting properties of aramid fibers are their low weight, high strength, and negative coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in the axial direction. When combined with the resin system, the resulting composite can offer reduced overall CTEs in the X-Y plane compared to conventional materials. 7.5.4.3 Linear Continuous Filament Fiberglass. A unique process for producing fiberglass-reinforced laminates winds continuous yarns in a linear orientation. The resulting laminate possesses three layers of fiberglass filaments, with the outside layers parallel to each other and the middle layer perpendicular to the outside. With an equal number of linear filaments running in each axis, this type of reinforcement results in a laminate with improved dimensional stability. 7.5.4.4 Paper. Cellulose-based papers can also be used as a reinforcement for base materials. Paper-based reinforcements are also used with other reinforcements such as woven glass, and these materials can also allow punching of through holes rather than drilling. This makes them economical in some high-volume, low-technology applications including consumer electronics such as radios, toys, calculators, and video game systems. Paper is used in FR-2, FR-3, and the core of CEM-1. 7.5.4.5 Fillers. Fillers are small particles that can be added to a resin system to modify the properties of the composite material. These materials range from talc, silica, kaolin clay powders, and tiny hollow glass spheres to a variety of other inorganic materials. These materials are typically used to tailor the properties of the base material for specific uses. For example, kaolin clay powders coated with a layer of palladium and dispersed within the base materials have been used as catalysts for electroless copper plating. Hollow glass microspheres have been used to reduce the dielectric constant of materials. Other fillers are being used to reduce thermal expansion properties and improve reliability, enhance the machinability of materials in the drilling process, alter electrical properties such as Dk and Df, and lower total costs. The use of fillers to reduce z-axis expansion has become quite common, especially as lead-free assembly is adopted. The reduced z-axis expansion helps offset the increased expansion and stress on plated through holes that results from the higher temperatures associated with lead-free assembly. This is discussed further in Chap. 9. 7.5.4.6 Expanded Teflon. Although not typically thought of as a reinforcement, Teflon that has been expanded into a spongelike structure on a microscopic scale is currently being used in applications that require prepregs with very low dielectric constants or loss properties.
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