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1. IPC-4101, Specification for Base Materials for Rigid and Multilayer Printed Boards. 2. Polyclad Product Reference Materials. 3. Kelley, Edward, Meeting the Needs of the Density Revolution with Non-Woven Fiberglass Reinforced Laminates, EIPC/Productronica Conference, November 1999. 4. W.L. Gore Technical Literature. 5. Levchik, Sergei V., Weil, Edward D., Thermal Decomposition, Combustion and Flame-Retardancy of Epoxy Resins a Review of the Recent Literature, Polymer International/Society of Chemical Industry, 2004. 6. Nelson, Gordon L., Fire and Polymers II, Materials and Tests for Hazard Prevention,American Chemical Society, 1995. 7. IPC-WP/TR-584, IPC White Paper and Technical Report on Halogen-Free Materials Used for Printed Circuit Boards and Assemblies. 8. Clark-Schwebel Industrial Fabrics Guide. 9. BGF Industries, Inc. Fiberglass Guide. 10. Gould Electronics Product Reference Materials. 11. Kelley, Edward J., and Micha, Richard A., Improved Printed Circuit Manufacturing with Reverse Treated Copper Foils. IPC Printed Circuits Expo, March 1997. 12. Jawitz, Martin W., Printed Circuit Materials Handbook, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1997. 13. IPC-4562, Metal Foil for Printed Wiring Applications. 14. Brist, Gary, Hall, Stephen, Clauser, Sidney, and Liang, Tao, Non-Classical Conductor Losses Due to Copper Foil Roughness and Treatment, ECWC 10/IPC/APEX Conference, February 2005. 15. IPC-4412, Specification for Finished Fabric Woven from E-Glass for Printed Boards.
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PROPERTIES OF BASE MATERIALS
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8.1 INTRODUCTION
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A variety of base material properties are of interest to the printed circuit manufacturer, assembler, and original equipment manufacturer (OEM). These include thermal, physical, mechanical, and electrical properties. This chapter introduces some of the most important properties and also provides some comparisons between material types. Most of the test methods used to evaluate these properties can be found in the IPC Test Methods Manual, IPC-TM-650.
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8.2 THERMAL, PHYSICAL, AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
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Historically, the properties that received the greatest amount of attention were the glass transition temperature, Tg, and the coefficients of thermal expansion, or CTEs, particularly in the z-axis. With the advent of lead-free assembly processes, other properties have increased in importance as well. The most notable is the decomposition temperature, Td. These properties were described in more detail in Chap. 6, and will be discussed again in Chap. 10, which focuses on the impact of lead-free assembly on base materials. However, some additional information as well as examples of the test data are included here, as well as comparisons of some common material types. 8.2.1 Thermomechanical Analysis Tg and CTEs Materials undergo changes in physical dimensions in response to changes in temperature. The rates of expansion of fiberglass cloth reinforced materials differ in the respective axes of the material due to the directionality of the reinforcement. The length and width of the laminate, or printed circuit, are termed the X/Y plane, whereas the axis perpendicular to this plane is the z-axis. Thermal expansion can be measured by thermomechanical analysis (TMA). TMA uses a device that measures a dimension of a sample versus temperature. Depending upon the orientation of the sample in the device, either the x/y CTE or the z-axis CTE can be measured. Figure 8.1 provides an example of a TMA scan on a high-Tg, filled FR-4 material designed to be compatible with most lead-free assembly applications. The Tg is determined by extrapolating the linear portions of the expansion curve to the point where they intersect. In this case, a Tg of
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PRINTED CIRCUITS HANDBOOK
50 248 40 Dimension change ( m) Post Tg CTE 211.36 C Alpha = 219.5 m/(m . C) 185.86 C
20 Pre Tg CTE 103.11 C Alpha = 45.15 m/m . C 58.39 C 50.19 C 0 50 100 150 Temperature ( C) 200 Un Tg 154.45 C Total expansion 41.79 m 2.580%
FIGURE 8.1
TMA scan illustrating Tg and CTE determination.
154.45 C is measured. The z-axis CTE values are typically calculated both pre-Tg, also called alpha 1 (a 1), and post-Tg, also called alpha 2 (a 2). In this example, the pre-Tg CTE is measured at just over 45 ppm/ C, and the post-Tg CTE is measured at just over 219 ppm/ C. The total expansion from 50 C to 250 C is also shown as a percent expansion value at 2.58 percent. Thermal expansion in the z-axis can significantly affect the reliability of printed circuits. Since plated through holes run through the z-axis of the printed circuit, thermal expansion and contraction in the base materials causes strain and plastic deformation in the plated through holes and can also deform the copper pads on the surface of the printed circuit. With sufficient stress on the external pads, they can be pulled toward the plated through hole during thermal stress and subsequently appear lifted from the surface upon cooling. These lifted or rotated pads are an indication of excessive thermal expansion. Thermal cycling over time can fatigue the plated through hole and ultimately cause failure from cracking of the copper plated within the hole or separation of the conductor from the hole wall. Thermal expansion in the x/y axes is of more importance when discussing the attachment of components to the printed circuit. This is of particular importance when chip scale packages (CSPs) and direct chip attach components are used because the difference in thermal expansion between the printed circuit board and the component can compromise the reliability of the bond between them as they undergo thermal cycles. The x/y CTE can also impact interlaminar adhesion and delamination resistance in copper clad laminates or PCBs. If individual layers of materials with very different x/y CTE properties are adjacent to each other, thermal cycling or thermal excursions can cause enough stress at the interface of these layers to cause a separation or delamination. The thermal excursions experienced in PCB assembly processes can severely stress these interfaces, and the higher temperatures of leadfree assembly result in additional stress. For this reason, more attention should be given to the x/y CTE values of individual layers in a PCB that will experience lead-free assembly. With a given material type, this typically means that the choice of fiberglass cloth styles and resin contents adjacent to each other be examined. Furthermore, hybrid constructions,
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