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In field operating conditions, ball grid array (BGA) solder joints are continuously subjected to strains due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the package and the PWB. These strains, which are caused by small but frequent fluctuations in temperature, accumulate as the device is powered up or down. As a result, cracks initiate in the solder joint interconnects and can eventually propagate, leading to solder joint opens. The ability of the solder joint interconnects to withstand these differential strains during field operating conditions for a desired lifetime is generally referred to as thermomechanical reliability. The most common method for accelerating this failure in the lab is by thermally cycling the assembled device through extreme temperatures while recording any electrical opens that may occur during the test.
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Temperature Cycling Thermal cycle experiments have been the current industry standard for assessing secondlevel interconnect reliability. These types of tests tend to produce solder joint and solder joint-pad interfacial fractures that are typically seen in field failures. The fact that thermal cycle tests produce the same physical failures allows for detailed acceleration transformations and finite element-based life assessments to be made employing thermal cycle data as input. The industry test method that is widely used for this testing is IPC-9701.2 IPC-9701 provides detailed guidelines for the recommended temperature cycling test methods for evaluating the reliability of surface-mount solder joints. In addition, IPC-9701 also provides guidelines for estimating the performance of solder joints in different field-use conditions from the recommended accelerated thermal cycling tests. An important benefit of performing industry standardized testing as recommended by IPC-9701 is that device suppliers can perform this test routinely for their devices, irrespective of where the device would be used. The results of the tests can then be used to determine whether the device will survive in a variety of end-use conditions. This saves significant testing cost and design time while providing a baseline for comparison of devices from different suppliers. Where there are minor differences between the conditions in which the device is to be used, finite element analysis can be performed to bridge the differences between the tested
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Acceleration Transforms Test device is identical to functional Yes Number of cycles to fail in experiment Lab test parameters Field use parameters No Finite Element Analysis Numerical model to bridge the differences between tested device and actual functional device geometry or use conditions.
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FIGURE 59.2 Flowchart of the solder joint thermomechanical reliability qualification process. Experimental data generated in the lab environment is compared with the expected product end-use conditions. If the package tested is identical to that used in the product, the acceleration transforms are used to map the fatigue life in the lab to the fatigue life in the product end-use conditions. If the package tested is similar but not identical to that used in the product, FEA is performed to account numerically for the differences between the tested and actual package before using the acceleration transforms.
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Predicted Fatigue Life Number of years the solder joints are predicted to survive in the expected field use conditions.
device and the actual environment in which a very similar device would be used. The entire process by which the reliability of a device can be assessed is illustrated in Fig. 59.2. Thermal cycle experiments are typically performed in single-chamber ovens. Dual-chamber systems are sometimes employed, but single-chamber equipment tends to dominate the test space. The main drawback of a dual-chamber oven is the lack of control over the thermal loading profile when transferring from one chamber (or thermal zone) to the other. Regardless of whether a single or dual chamber is used, temperature is cycled from a maximum (Tmax) to a minimum (Tmin) value. Temperature is ramped from one temperature extreme to another at a controlled rate, referred to as the ramp rate.Temperature is also held at the maximum and minimum values for a predetermined time known as the dwell time. Table 59.1 lists typical
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