barcode reading in c#.net PROCESS WASTE MINIMIZATION AND TREATMENT in Software

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PROCESS WASTE MINIMIZATION AND TREATMENT
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Removal of Copper from the Electroless Copper Bath 60.7.2.1 Theory of Operation. It is well known that copper metal can be deposited onto metal (usually copper or palladium) within a PCB hole. Dissolved copper is automatically reduced (using formaldehyde as its reducing agent) to a solid metal and deposits itself onto the palladium inside of the hole while the panel is immersed in the electroless copper bath. The chemical reaction of copper deposition may be represented by Cu (EDTA) 2 + 2HCHO + 4OH 1 >> Cu0 + H2 + 2H2O + 2CHOO 1 + EDTA 4 (60.7) This process can be utilized to remove copper from the electroless copper baths and bailout. Products on the market include canisters or modules which contain a proprietary spongelike material deposited with palladium and copper. The electroless copper solution passes through the canister where the copper is autocatalytically reduced, trapped by the spongelike media and filtered out of the waste stream. See Fig. 60.5 Typically, a minimum of two canisters are connected in series. As the copper concentration in the first canister approaches 1.0 mg/L, the sponge material is replaced by the material in the second canister. New sponge material is added to the second canister.
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Sodium Borohydride Reduction Although not as common or as inexpensive as the autocatalytic method, one of the simplest methods for the treatment of electroless copper is by the use of another strong reducing
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FIGURE 60.5
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Copper removal from electroless copper bailout using copper reduction.
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agent, sodium borohydride (NaBH4). This chemical is commercially available as a solution of 40 percent caustic soda containing 12 percent by weight of sodium borohydride. The chemical reaction can be represented by 8MX + NaBH4 + 2H2O => 8M + NaBO2 + 8HX (60.8)
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where M is the cation with +1 valence and X is the anion. The spent electroless bath has to be in an active state for this method to work efficiently. Adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and/or formaldehyde (HCHO) to the bath will shift the equilibrium in the bath to this reactive stage. When this stage is reached, a small addition of sodium borohydride will catalyze the reaction, and reduced copper will precipitate out as metallic fines. A typical process for using sodium borohydride requires the use of an open-top batch tank that is located in a well-ventilated area. Since NaBH4 can react to release hydrogen as a side reaction, any source of flames or sparks must be eliminated. A 0.5 to 1 percent, by volume, NaBH4 solution is added slowly to the batch reaction tank that contains the spent electroless copper solution. After a few minutes, the solution will effervesce vigorously and fine, pink copper particles will begin to form and become visible to the naked eye. Small bubbles of flammable hydrogen gas will also evolve from the solution, and these must be rapidly removed by appropriate exhausts. Usually within about one hour, the solution will turn clear and copper will precipitate from the solution. These fines will eventually settle to the bottom of the batch tank and the copper fines should be removed as soon as the reaction has been completed. Otherwise the copper fines may reoxidize and dissolve back into solution. More NaBH4 will then be necessary to remove the copper. After the copper fines have been removed, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can be added to the clear solution to oxidize any excess formaldehyde to the less toxic formic acid. This process can be used for other metal-bearing waste streams besides electroless copper. However, it is typically not a cost-effective means of treating nonchelated waste.
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Aqueous and Semiaqueous Photoresist Stripping Bath Treatment A significant volume of waste produced from PCB factory is from the stripping of resists. Resist stripping machines can utilize on-line or off-line equipment to remove semisolid photoresists on a continuous basis from the operating bath. Removing the suspended solids within the solution provides a longer life and more efficient usage. In any case, there will be times when the bath becomes spent and must be dumped. Waste from this process should be segregated for treatment so that the sludge produced can be classified as nonhazardous. In addition, good engineering practice dictates that spent photoresist stripping baths not enter a continuous precipitation system since organic photopolymers may not always settle in a clarifier. Under some conditions (at certain temperatures or with certain organics), stratification of the organic material in the clarifier can occur. As a result, the organic solids can float and any metal hydroxide particles nearby may become attached to the floating material. The treatment procedure for this waste uses chemical precipitation (caused by lowering the pH) and filtration (to remove the photoresist and residual metals). The treated wastes can be slowly discharged into the existing final pH adjustment tank. The specific treatment procedure follows. The untreated pH of this waste is approximately 12.0 pH units. Sulfuric acid is slowly added to lower the pH to about 9.0. After a stable pH is achieved, the pH will be lowered to about 6.0 by the addition of acidic proprietary chemicals available at the time of this writing. At this low pH, the dissolved resist will precipitate out of solution and the solids formed can be removed by pumping the waste through a filter press.
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