barcode reading using DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS in Software


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TABLE 62.1 Construction Types of Flex Circuits Classification Basic structure includes Structure types
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Supplemental structure includes
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Single-sided flexible circuits Double-sided flexible circuits with or without through-holes Multilayer flexible circuits with through-holes Multilayer rigid/flexible circuits with through-holes Blind via holes, inner via holes Flying-lead structure Coverlay structure Stiffener structure Dimple structure Micro bump structure
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An appropriate combination of a basic structure and supplemental structures should be chosen according to the requirements of the application.Also, appropriate termination technologies and suitable circuit constructions must be considered together.
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HDI (High-Density Interconnect) Flexible Circuits There are significant differences in design, materials, and manufacturing technologies between traditional flexible circuits and new high-density flexible circuits developed for high-density interconnect (HDI). Figure 62.2 shows one way of defining the areas of high-density flexible circuits by using the technical hurdles of manufacturing for both trace densities and via hole sizes. Advanced etching technology is needed to give the high-density flexible circuits fine traces. Also needed are new micro via hole generation technologies other than traditional mechanical drilling, such as laser, plasma, and chemical etching. Ultra-high-density flexible circuits have been developed for special applications. They have extremely fine circuits that are smaller than 20 mm in pitch, as well as micro via hole connections
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Via Diameter (micron)
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Traditional Flexible Circuits
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HDI Flexible Circuits
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50 Ultra HDI Flexible Circuits 0 50 100 150 Circuit Density (micron pitch) 200
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FIGURE 64.2 Definition of HDI flexible circuits.
smaller than 25 mm in diameter. Product concepts for ultra-high-density flexible circuits are very different from those for traditional flexible circuits in construction and manufacturing technologies. They need completely new concepts for the manufacturing processes, such as an additive process with new materials and new equipment. (See Chaps. 22 and 23 for detailed discussions of HDI design and fabrication.) New high-density flexible circuits have supplemental structures such as flying leads and micro bump arrays to complete high-density terminations. As volume production is limited, the designers should consider the manufacturers process capabilities seriously. 62.3.2 Single-Sided Circuits A bare single-sided flex circuit has a construction very similar to those of the single-sided rigid circuit boards, except for the thickness of the substrate layers. On the other hand, the protection of the conductors of the flexible circuits is very different from the rigid boards.A film coverlay system is Coverlay film introduced for the flexible circuits instead of solder masks (see Fig. 62.3). As introduced in Chap. 61, there are Coverlay adhesive several choices of substrate (see Table 62.2). A 25-mmConductor thick polyimide film substrate is the most common Base adhesive material for consumer applications, with large volume due to its low cost. For higher reliability thicker film should be chosen, while for lower reliability, a thinner Base film film can be used. FIGURE 62.3 Basic structure of single-sided flexible circuit. The thickness of the adhesive layers must be counted when total thickness is considered.
TABLE 62.2 Thickness of Base Substrates Base film (mm) Polyester base/adhesive type Polyimide base/adhesive type Polyimide base/adhesiveless type Glass-epoxy 25, 38, 50, 75, 100, 125, 188 12.5, 25, 38, 50, 75, 125 12.5, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 100, 200 Adhesive (mm) 25 50 25 50 No 0
Adhesive layer thickness is doubled for double-sided laminates.
Possible fine-line capability is illustrated for each copper thickness in. Fig. 62.4 Currently 18- and 35-mm copper foils are standard. Copper foils 12 mm and 9 mm thick are becoming the new standard to enable finer pattern etching. Thinner copper foils are available in sputtered/plated adhesiveless laminate materials. The fine-trace etching capability depends very much on the manufacturer, especially the exposure process and etching process. 62.3.3 Coverlay System of Flexible Circuits The coverlay system of flexible circuits is one of the big differences from rigid printed circuit boards, as shown in Fig. 62.3. A coverlay has to have more functions than the solder mask of rigid boards. It should not only have solder dam capability, but also mechanical protection capability for the fragile conductors of flexible circuits.Also it is required to have high toughness to survive long flex endurance and to optimize the major advantage of flexible circuits. Appropriate coverlay material and thickness including adhesive layers have to be chosen to have the best balance between the layers. Generally, the same film material laminated with appropriate adhesive as base substrate is selected as the coverlay materials. Polyimide film coverlay should be selected for the high temperature assembling processes such as soldering.
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