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FIGURE 62.13
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Dimple structures (Ink jet printer).
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CIRCUIT DESIGNS FOR FLEXIBILITY
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One of the major features of flexible circuits is their long flexing endurance. A suitable layer construction and materials survives over billion times of flexing with a small radius. A basic idea of the mechanical stress during the bending is illustrated in Fig. 62.14(a). To have the longest flexing life, the conductor layer should be the center of the layer construction. It should have symmetrical layer constructions for both sides of the conductor layer. The flexing life will be remarkably shorter when the conductor layer is out side of the bending center as shown in Fig. 62.14(b). A rolled annealed copper foil should be used instead of ED copper foil for a longer flexing life. But there is no exact relation between roll direction and flexing
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Tension Coverlay film Adhesive layer Conductor layer Center line Compression (a) Adhesive layer Base film
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FIGURE 62.14 (a) and (b) Mechanical stress at bending, (a) Symetrical, (b) Nonsymetrical.
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Coverlay film Adhesive layer Adhesive layer Base film Conductor (a) Coverlay film Adhesive layer Adhesive layer Base film Conductor (b) Coverlay film Conductor Base film (c)
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FIGURE 62.15 Layer construction for dynamic flexing, (a) Standard layer construction, (b) Dynamic flexing construction with thin adhesive layers, (c) Dynamic flexing construction without adhesive layer.
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endurance; the exact performance should be evaluated for each material. Generally, 35 microns thick RA copper is more expensive than the same thick ED copper foil. The cost difference between RA copper foil and ED copper foil will be larger at thinner thickness. A high ductility ED copper foil could be alternative choice for middle class dynamic flexing. Its flexing life is shorter than RA copper foil, but it is less expensive and it can survive one million flexing instances with an appropriate layer construction and flexing radius. Another principle is that for dynamic flexing, the thinner the layer, the better.An 18-mm-thick copper foil has a longer flexing life than a 35-mm-thick copper foil. A 12.5-mm-thick polyimide film provides a longer flexing life than a 25-mm-thick polyimide film (Fig. 62.15). Adhesive layers should be as thin as possible for dynamic flexing. But thin adhesive layers do not have good bond strength and good encapsulation for traces, and therefore a suitable thickness should be determined based on experimental data. Generally, polyimide films have a longer life than polyester films. The combination of a thin, adhesiveless, polyimide base laminate and a thin coverlay of liquid polyimide resin could be the best solution to have the longest flexing life. Many kinds of bending modes on flexible circuits could be practical, but in IPC-TM-650 it is recommended to evaluate the flexing life using the movement shown in Fig. 62.16.
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DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
The larger flexing radius provides a longer flexing life, as shown in Fig. 62.17. There are several ideas for reducing the risks of flexing failures in actual cases for electronic products; Fig. 62.18 shows some examples. Basically, double-sided flexible circuits with through holes are not available for dynamic flexing.The flexibility depends on the configuration of conductors in both sides of the base substrate, as shown in Fig. 62.19 shows examples. Bending the circuit with thin copper circuits on the outside of the flexible circuits may cause them to break, because the mechanical stresses are concentrated on the small traces. A dynamic flexing area of a double-sided flexible FIGURE 62.16 Typical dynamic flexing circuit should have only one conductor layer. Coverlay mode of flexible circuit specified by IPCon the other side of conductor should also be elimi- TM-650. nated to enable symmetrical layer constructions. Copper plating for the through-holes of double-sided flexible circuits should be eliminated from dynamic flexing areas using a plating mask.
FIGURE 62.17 Flexing radius and life as specified by IPC-TM-650 test method. Bending Diameter (mm) a) RA copper foil, b) ED copper foil.
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