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FIGURE 65.5
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Standard manufacturing flow for multilayer rigid/flexible circuits.
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FIGURE 65.6
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Material constructin for multilayer rigid/flexible circuits.
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the standard manufacturing process for multilayer rigid/flexible circuits shown in Fig. 65.6. As seen in Fig. 65.6, the process starts with flexible, double-sided copper-clad laminates. The conductive patterns are generated by the traditional etching process without through holes. All traces are covered with plain coverlay films, which have no openings. The multiple covered flexible circuits are bonded with bonding sheets, which are already routed to make openings for nonbonding flexible areas. Caps (the outside layers of rigid parts) are made with rigid double-sided copper-clad laminates. Traces are printed and etched only on the inside surfaces of the laminates as the first process. Flexible parts of the boards are removed through NC routing or punching. Both flexible layers and caps are bonded with bonding sheets that have been routed for flexible parts. Appropriate dummy boards are prepared for the flexible part during the bonding process. A vacuum press is preferred for good bonding quality. An autoclave system is recommended for complicated circuit constructions, because the autoclave can create uniform pressure on the entire circuit. Suitable baking should be done prior to lamination or bonding processes. As the laminated board can be handled in the same way as multilayer rigid boards, the same through-hole processes are available, except desmearing, which is dependent on the combination of materials used (see later).The drilling process is conducted after enough baking in basically the same way as for rigid boards. A plasma etching process should be applied to remove smears of acrylic resins in the holes. The etchback conditions should be determined carefully. The same through-hole plating process is available; however, detailed conditions must be determined based on reliability test data.
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FIGURE 65.7 Example of typical multilayer rigid/flexible circuit with via holes. (Source: Toshiba.)
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The rest of the processes are very similar to those used for multilayer rigid boards. Outer layer etching, coverlay (solder mask), and surface treatment are conducted in the same way. When the dummy boards are removed after routing, the circuit becomes a rigid/flexible circuit. 65.2.4 Through-Hole Process When inner via holes are required in flexible layers, the same through-hole process should be conducted prior to etching of inner-layers as for rigid board inner-layers. Figure 65.7 shows an example of inner via holes in flexible parts of a multilayer rigid/flex, and Fig. 65.8 shows a cross section of a multilayer rigid/flex plated through-hole. The through hole drilling can be accomplished by the same machine as used for rigid multilayer boards. However, the drilling conditions should be determined carefully for each material s construction. Baking conditions prior to drilling could be critical in creating reliable through-holes. Desmearing of the rigid/flex is different from that of standard rigid multilayer boards. The acrylic adhesive materials will undergo serious swelling during standard FIGURE 65.8 Cross section of a through-hole in a permanganate desmearing processes, lower- multilayer rigid/flexible circuit. ing through-hole reliability. A plasma etching process is recommended to remove the smears of acrylic adhesive materials in the drilled holes. Use of a polyimide adhesive system can reduce the smear level significantly, but this also requires a high-temperature process in special press equipment.
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Reliable Through-Holes
Aerospace and industrial equipment require a higher reliability for the through holes than consumer electronic products. Copper plating thicker than 25 microns is recommended. Several adhesive resins, especially acrylic-based adhesives developed for flexible circuits are not stable with the permanganate solution that is common for rigid multilayer boards, which means that a very narrow window is allowed for the desmearing of the rigid/flex process. If the materials are dipped too long in the solution, the adhesive layers swell and the reliability of the through holed will be damaged. A plasma etching process has been introduced to remove the smear inside of the drilled holes as a substitute for using potassium permanganate solution for the polyimide base multilayer rigid/flex. The plasma gas removes the smear in the holes effectively without chemical damages on the adhesive resins. The use of supplemental plasma etching, called the Etch Back Process, is recommended to achieve high reliability of throughhole multilayer rigid/flexible circuits. The plasma gas provides further etching on both of polyimide films and adhesive layer in the drilled holes. The plasma gas does not etch metal materials and it FIGURE 65.9 Etchback of through-hole clears the surface of the copper foils for reliable copper plating as in multilayer flexible circuit. shown in Fig. 65.9. 65.2.6 Bookbinder Construction A multilayer rigid/flex that has multiple conductor layers in its flexible (parts fixed by rigid caps at both sides) will not bend effectively if all the layers are of the same length. Special designs are not required while the flex areas have long distance and they use thin films and copper foils. They are sometimes called Air Gap Construction. The Bookbinder Construction is recommended for the reliable interconnects of the multiple flexible layers in a rigid/flex with a short distance. A longer length of the flexible layer should be provided at the outer side of the flexible area. When they are bent, the flexible layers have uniform gaps between the flexible layers as shown in Fig. 65.10. Special tooling and equipment are required to build the bookbinder construction, and the productivity is comparatively extremely low. As a result, this process is not used for consumer or other applications that require low cost.
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