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FIGURE 66.4 Manufacturing process for flying lead flexible circuit construction using (a) laser ablartion and (b) plasma etching or chemical etching.
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SPECIAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF FLEXIBLE CIRCUITS
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FIGURE 66.5 processes.
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Comparison of opening sizes of flying-lead flexible circuit manufacturing
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TABLE 66.1 Comparison of Flying-Lead Manufacturing Technologies Prepunching (NC routing) Minimum slit width (mm) Material availability Design flexibility Capability for high-density flying leads Technical hurdles Registration Damage on flying leads Process cost Investment for large volume 800 Fair Limited Limited Low Difficult Serious High Small Laser abrasion 50 Wide Wide Wide Fair Fair Small High High Plasma etching 100 Wide Limited Fair High Fair Fair Low High Chemical etching 70 Limited Limited Fair High Fair Fair Low Medium
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Laser Abrasion The excimer laser process has the capability to generate small openings with clearly defined edges on high-density flexible circuits.The narrow slit openings can be made smaller than 50 mm wide. The excimer process is available for all types of flexible circuit materials with high accuracy and fine openings. A carbon residue, typically removed by a suitable wet cleaning process, is found around the edges of the openings. One of the biggest disadvantages of excimer laser system is its slow speed, which accounts for the high processing cost when dealing with larger openings. The UV:YAG laser process offers a higher productivity rate than the excimer laser for very small openings. It has the ability to cut both copper foil and organic substrate materials with
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good quality, which makes it suitable for cutting small openings on a wide range of high-density flexible circuits. Unfortunately, the productivity rate becomes extremely slow when cutting larger openings. Actually, it becomes impractical from a cost standpoint to utilize a UV:YAG laser system for openings larger than 10,000 mm2. Carbon dioxide TEA lasers, as well as diamond carbon dioxide lasers, have a much higher productivity rate when producing openings wider than 70 mm. The definition of the opening and quality of the edges, however, is somewhat less desirable than for other laser systems. In order to facilitate surface plating, a suitable cleaning process such as plasma is required to remove the thin residue remaining on the copper surface. A copper mask process helps to improve both quality and speed of the carbon dioxide laser process. The excimer laser process, like the UV:YAG laser system, minimizes the potential for thermal damage on very thin flying leads. The carbon dioxide laser generates a remarkable amount of heat. The beam power density of the laser must be controlled carefully in order to process 18-mm copper with high-density flying leads narrower than 100 mm wide.
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Plasma Etching and Chemical Etching Plasma and chemical etching processes are other suitable choices for generating high-density flying-lead structures. Although their capabilities are somewhat less than those of laser processing, these processes can provide a lower-cost model of high-volume processing. A copper foil mask is required in order to define the exposure area, and specific process conditions are required to remove organic substrates effectively. These processes are quite effective for singlesided substrates. Double-sided substrates can be processed in this manner given very specific materials and construction. A big advantage of these processes is the unlimited number of holes or openings that can be processed simultaneously. Performance value is high, while manufacturing costs remain fixed when larger sizes or higher numbers of holes are processed. The plasma process is capable of etching all kinds of organic materials; however, it must be performed in a vacuum chamber. Capital investment is relatively large for high-volume production. Another issue involves uniform quality over a large working area/panel size in a vacuum chamber of limited size. Depending on the process conditions, plasma etching creates a wall slope of 30 to 60 at the edge of the openings, and it is difficult to make holes smaller than 100 mm in diameter on a 50-mm-thick polyimide layer. Chemical etching also offers a low-cost process for creating access openings in high volume on polyimide-based high-density flexible circuits. This process offers the capability of generating openings smaller than 100 mm in diameter or slit width on 25-mm substrates, while providing a very small slope on the wall definition of the opening. The issue in this process is finding the appropriate chemicals and creating the suitable conditions to etch the various flexible substrates. Sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are popular chemicals for etching Kapton type polyimide materials. Dangerous chemistries and tightly controlled process conditions are required to etch dimensionally stable polyimide substrates such as Upilex . Serious consideration must be given to choosing the appropriate circuit design, materials, and manufacturing processes. On the other hand, chemical processing such as this requires no specialized capital equipment, and it is extremely suitable for high-volume roll-to-roll manufacturing systems. Typical high-density flying leads produced by new processes are shown in Fig. 66.6
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Economical Comparison Each technology has its own cost structure, which is dependent on the conditions. Figure 66.7 shows a comparison from an economic study of the various technologies. This study was conducted on 25-mm-thick polyimide substrate with a 300-mm2 working size. The opening size is assumed to be 0.1 3 mm, with flying leads at a 150-mm pitch processed on 18-mm-thick copper.
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