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The third process technique used in these applications involves photoimaging a permanent dielectric material in order to form the microvias. These photoimageable dielectrics resemble plating resists but must be able to be catalyzed for subsequent plating operations that will form the external circuit image, and must adhere sufficiently to the rest of the multilayer circuit to provide long-term reliability.
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Conductive anodic filament (CAF) formation is a term used to describe an electrochemical reaction in which conductive paths are formed within a dielectric material due to transport of metal or metal salts through the dielectric. These paths may form between two circuit traces, between two vias, or between a trace and a via, as illustrated in Fig. 9.12. CAF formation between a hole and a plane inside the PCB is also possible, and is similar in concept to holeto-trace CAF formation. By definition, as circuit density increases, the space between these features decreases. With shorter paths between features, CAF growth becomes a more critical reliability consideration. For CAF growth to occur, a bias and a path for this filament growth must be present. In fiberglass-reinforced materials, a gap between the resin and the fiberglass filaments is the most common pathway. If the glass is not completely wet-out with resin, or if the bond between the resin system and the fiberglass filaments is insufficient or is compromised, the resulting gap can become such a path. Hollow fiberglass filaments can also provide a path. In addition, there must be a medium in which this electromigration can occur, such as absorbed moisture that allows dissolved ionic species to migrate and promote the electrochemical reaction that leads to CAF. Figure 9.13 is an actual example of CAF formation. Research on CAF has been done for many years. Some of the key findings of this research include the following:
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CAF is a two-step process consisting of path formation and the electrochemical reaction. The filament is usually in the form of a copper salt.
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E-glass fibers ~10 m dia. CAF (a) Anode Cathode PWB PWB CAF (c) E-glass fibers ~10 m dia.
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E-glass fibers ~10 m dia. CAF (b) Anode Cathode
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FIGURE 9.12 Pathways for CAF formation: (a) hole to hole; (b) hole to track; (c) track to hole: (d) track to track.
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FIGURE 9.13
An example of CAF between two plated through holes.
Moisture absorption can influence the rate of CAF formation, and there is a minimum threshold for moisture absorption below which CAF is unlikely to occur. Temperature can influence the rate of the electrochemical reaction. The level of bias can also influence the rate of CAF formation. Resin-to-glass wet-out is critical in that it eliminates a potential pathway. Beyond glass wet-out, the bond between the resin and the glass is important to ensure that adhesion is not lost due to moisture or thermal stress. Selection of the coupling agent used to improve adhesion between the resin and the glass is critical in this regard, and different resin systems may require different coupling agent types. Figure 9.14 shows examples of silane coupling agents, where R represents various chemical species that can be modified for different applications. The cleanliness of the glass, both before coating with silane as well as prior to coating with the resin system, is important to ensure proper wetting and bonding of resin to glass. The curing agent used in the resin system can influence CAF formation. This may be due to the tendency of some curing agents to absorb moisture, or to the electrochemical nature of the specific curing agent, or both. Contaminants on the glass cloth or within the resin system can also accelerate CAF formation. For example, residual hydrolyzable chlorides present in some epoxy resins are known to catalyze electrochemical reactions that can lead to CAF.
O (CH3O)3 Si R CH CH2 GLASS(Si) GLASS(Si) GLASS(Si) (CH3O)3 Si R NH2 Bonding to glass cloth Bonding to resin O O O Si Si Si R R R Z Z Z
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