PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE CONDUCT OF REACTIONS in VS .NET

Maker QR Code JIS X 0510 in VS .NET PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE CONDUCT OF REACTIONS

PRINCIPLES GOVERNING THE CONDUCT OF REACTIONS
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Unless this section is thoroughly understood, much of the significance of the design procedures that follow will be lost. Alany processes can tolerate poorly designed control systems, particularly if they are protected from a rapidly varying load. But most chemical reactors will not. Some need no load upset to break into oscillations sufficiently violent to ruin product, destroy catalyst, damage equipment, and endanger life. It is therefore not surprising to find many reactors operated in manual control, simply because their automatic systems are not capable of doing their job. Control is usually unsatisfactory in manual, too, but operators tend to have more confidence in themselves than in poorly designed control systems.
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Chemical Equilibrium
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A great many chemical reactions are reversible. That is, under certain conditions it is possible to start with the products and make a measurable amount of t.he reactan& In these cases an equilibrium state can exist in which the reaction comes to a standstill because the forward and reverse rates are equal. This equilibrium point determines how much of the reactants can be converted into products and also what conditions will favor conversion. As an example, consider the vapor-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide into sulfur trioxide, one of the steps in the manufacture of sulfuric acid: so, + x0 2 s SO, + heat (10.1)
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A certain ratio of product to reactant concentration can be reached which will bring about equilibrium. This ratio is identified by the equilibrium constant K, such that: (10.2) Every reversible reaction has an equilibrium constant, which is a function of temperature and catalyst. The existence of an equilibrium state discloses that a certain fraction of the reactants must be withdrawn along with the product. This places
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Controlling Chemical Reactions
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a limitation on the conversion which can be achieved within a reactor. But several tactics can be used to improve conversion, which can be deduced from Eqs. (10.1) and (10.2): 1. Reduction in product concentration will permit reduction in reactant concentration. Thus, if product can be removed from the reaction zone by condensation, for example, more conversion is possible. Conversion can approach 100 percent if products are easily separated from the reactants as gases or solids from a liquid-phase reaction or as liquids or solids from a vapor-phase reaction. 2. An increase in reactant concentration will also increase conversion. Notice in Eq. (10.2) that SO3 concentration is a fun&ion of both the SO2 and O2 concentrations. An increase in either SOZ or O2 will promote conversion; therefore either reactant can be used in excess to augment conversion of the other. 3. For the particular example being used, Eq. (10.1) indicates that the total moles (hence volume) of the reactants (1.5) is greater than that of the product (1). Therefore an increase in pressure will tend to increase t he denominator of Eq. (10.2) more than the numerator; this will enhance conversion. This particular reaction should therefore be conducted under pressure. 4. The evolution of heat indicated by Eq. (10.1) also affects equilibrium. Just as separation of product from the reactants will promote conversion, removal of heat will do likewise. In fact , high temperature favors the reverse reaction. Consequently subject reaction should be conducted at low temperature with continuous removal of heat. A catalyst is a substance that has the property of changing the equilibrium constant without actually taking part in the reaction. It may be nothing more than a porous surface onto which the reactants are adsorbed. Or it may serve to establish a token concentration of an intermediate product, without which the final product might not be formed. Or it may serve to provide the correct environment, e.g., acidity. Light even catalyzes some reactions. Catalyst may be packed in a fixed bed within t,he reactor. Uniformly small particles may also be supported by the upward velocity of the reactant stream (gas or liquid), in which case it is called a fluidized bed. Solid catalyst may also be dissolved or suspended in a liquid reaction media, then separated from the products and recycled. ;\Ietal catalysts may be made into screens or other shapes across which the reactants flow. It should be remembered, however, that the reaction takes place 011 the surface of the catalyst; if heat is evolved, cooling should be applied there, or the cat alyst could bc destroyed or deactivated. Alost catalysts also become deactivated due to fouling of the surface with by-products and contamination by impurities in the feed stock, called poisons. The
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