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Stripping
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Absorption is usually followed by a stripping operation, in which the absorbed component is removed from the solvent. Stripping may also be carried out independently, to preferentially remove lighter components as dissolved gases from a liquid product.
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FIG 12.2. In a stripping column, all the condensables are refluxed, all the noncondensables discharged.
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A stripping column appears quite like a distillation tower, equipped with both a reboiler and condenser. The reboiler raises the vapor pressure of all components, driving the most volatile preferent ially up t he column. A condenser is necessary to reflux whatever solvent might otherwise be carried away with the stripped vapors. A tower for removal of volat,ile impurities in a liquid product, is shown in Fig. 12.2. Only the reflux would contain more dissolved impurities than the feed, which therefore ent ers near the top. Because inventory control for vapor and liquid manipulate both effluent streams, as in an absorber, heat input is the only variable left for composit ion control. Since, in th is example, quality of the liquid product is the primary variable, control of temperature near t he base of the column is used to specify it,s initial boiling point. lcigure 12.2 shows how the temperature controller would be used to adjust the heat input to feed ratio. A lag is indicated in the forward loop, because t he cont rolled variable is nearer to t,hc manipulated variable than to the load. When operated in conjunction with an absorber, the product becomes the vapor leaving the condenser, while t he bott om stream is recycled to the absorber. A typical absorber&ripper combinat,ion for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen is shown in Fig. 12.3. ,\lonoethanolamine (I\IEA) is used as the solvent. Control of CO, content in the MEA leaving the stripper is only important for its influence on the equilibrium maintained wit,h the gas leaving the top tray of the absorber-CO2 is not lost. Cooling the lean ;\tEA enhances absorpt ion, alt hough its control is not really warranted. In addit,ion, the absorber usually operates at a higher pressure than the skipper.
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Cooling towers dissipate tremendous quantities of heat into the atmosphere through the process of humidification. Water circulat ed countercurrently t o a stream of air is reduced in t cmperaturc owing t o the fact
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FIG 12.3. The solvent is continuously recycled between the absorber and stripper.
that atmospheric air is ordinarily far from saturated with water vapor. The latent heat of t,he evaporated water is converted into a change in sensible heat of the remainder. Humidification and dehumidification also apply to environmental control where a certain moisture content is desired in the air. As pointed out earlier, an operation of this sort is generally conducted in a single stage, so control is actually not difficult. Yet the significance of the terms and principles is sufficiently confusing to deserve a general review and definition : 1. The vapor pressure of wat,er in atmospheres varies with its temperat ure in degrees Rankine: 4407 log p: = 6.69 - T 2. I :n%ial prcssurc p, was defined by Eq. (12.1). With regard to humidificat~ion, the liquid is essent ially pure, so 2 in Eq. (12.2) is 1.0. At equilibrium (100 percent saturation), t,he part,ial pressure of water vapor is equal to its vapor pressure at the prevailing temperature, that is, p, = p,:. 3. Absolute humidity is the rat io of t,he mass of water vapor to the mass of air or gas in the mixture: Lb wat er/lb dry air = wl _ pw)
18Pw
(12.10)
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4. The mass of water per unit volume of humid air is sometimes used. Its units are typically2
Grains/cu
ft = 1.73 X lo5 F
(12.11)
where p, is in atmospheres and 7 in degrees Rankine. 5 Relative humidity is the percent saturation at prevailing temperature and pressure and is exactly defined as lOOp,/pz. 6. Dew point is the temperature at which a mixture becomes saturated when cooled out of contacat wit h liquid at constant pressure. It is often used to det crmine the moisture content of gases, by converting the temperature t o vapor pressure by Eq. (12.9). Below 32 F, the dew point is actually a frost point. 7. Wet-bulb temperature is t he equilibrium temperature reached by a small amount of liquid evaporating adiabatically into a large volume of gas. Equilibrium exists when the rate of heat transfer from the gas to the cooler liquid equals that consumed by evaporation. It is affected by heat and mass t ransfer cocfhcients as well as humidit y, therefore is dependent on maintaining turbulent gas flow around the bulb. Humidity can be determined from wet-bulb, 2 ,, and dry-bulb, 7 , temperatures by following the adiabatic-saturation curves on a psychrometric chart,, or by 1 - T, = O.l46H, PU p,* - ~ 1 - pw > 1 - P,* (12.12)
where H,, = latent heat of evaporat ion p,* = vapor pressure at, the wet-bulb tcmperaturc Humidity measurements may be made by several diffcrcnt means, wet-bulb temperature being but one. Some instruments are equipped with a hair clement which is sensitive to changes in relative humidity. Though dew point may be measured direct ly, a more reliable instrument3 uses a hygroscopic salt whose conductivity varies with moist ure content. The salt is self-heated simply by application of an a-c voltage, and its temperature is an indication of the absolute humidity. The measured t empcraturc is not the dew point , but is related to it such that scales are available for direct reading in dew point or units of absolute humidity. Choice of the type of measurement to be used for control depends on the process. Under isothermal conditions, the moisture content of solid mat erials varies with relative humidity, but in adiabatic processes, a determining factor is wet-bulb temperature. An exact analysis of moisture content can best be found by an absolute-humidity measurement, however. Control of humidification involves manipulat ion of heat input or air flow 00 a system containing excess water. A spray chamber for humidification is shown in Fig. 12.4.
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