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Bank 0 Addr - Reg 50 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C
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Bank 1 Addr - Reg INDF OPTION PCL STATUS FSR TRISA TRISB EECON1 EECON2 PCLATH INTCON CF Shared File Regs FF Unused
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80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 EEDATA 88 EEADR 89 PCLATH 8A INTCON 8B 4F Shared 8C File Regs 7F D0 Unused
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INDF TMRO PCL STATUS FSR PORTA PORTB
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Shaded areas indicate unused registers - 0x000 Returned when these registers are read
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PIC16F84 register map.
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In Fig. 6.6, the PIC16C84 s register space is shown for bank 0 and bank 1. When execution has selected bank 0, the PORTA and PORTB registers can be addressed directly. When bank 1 is selected, the TRISA and TRISB registers are accessed at the same address as PORTA and PORTB when bank 0 is selected. To change the current bank out of which the mid-range application is executing, the RPx bits of the STATUS register are changed. To change between bank 0 and bank 1 or bank 2 and bank 3, RP0 is modi ed. Another way of looking at RP0 is that it selects between odd and even banks. RP1 selects between the upper (bank 2 and bank 3) and lower (bank 0 and bank 1) bank pairs. For most of the basic mid-range PIC microcontroller applications presented in this book, you will only be concerned with bank 0 and bank 1 and RP0. At the risk of getting ahead of myself, the TRIS registers are used to specify the input or output operation of the I/O port bits. When one of the TRIS register bits is set, the corresponding PORT bit is in input mode. When the TRIS bit is reset, then the PORT bit is in output mode. To access the PORT bits, bank 0 must be selected, and to access the TRIS bits, bank 1 must be selected. For example, to set PORTB bit 0 as an output and load it with a 1, the PIC microcontroller code would execute as
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PORTB.Bit0 STATUS.RP0 Bank 1 TRISB.Bit0 STATUS.RP0 = 1; = 1; = 0; = 0; // Load PORTB.Bit0 with a 1 // Start Executing out of // Make PORTB.Bit0 Output // Resume Execution in Bank 0
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Microchip speci es that bank 1 registers are de ned with the same address as bank 0 registers but with bit 7 set in their address speci cation. This means that for the mid-range PIC microcontrollers, bank 0 register addresses are in the range of 0 to 0x7F, whereas
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THE MICROCHIP PIC MCU PROCESSOR ARCHITECTURE
bank 1 register addresses are in the range of 0x80 to 0xFF. Once the RP0 bit is set to select the appropriate bank, the least signi cant 7 bits of the address are used to access a speci c register. This can be very confusing the reason for having this speci cation is the FSR (index pointer) register, which is 8 bits in size. The FSR can access registers in both banks transparently. The Microchip TRISB register has the address value 0x86, which has bit 7 set and is in bank 1. PORTB has an address value of 0x006 and can only be accessed when bank 0 is selected. When you start working with more complex mid-range PIC microcontrollers, which use all four banks, you will see registers with address bit 8 set, which indicates that the registers are in banks 2 and 3. These registers are accessed directly using the RP1 bit (along with RP0), and the least signi cant 7 bits of the Microchip-speci ed address are used as the address. Specifying an address with bit 7 (or 8) set will result in the following message:
Register in operand not in bank 0. Ensure that bank bits are correct.
This indicates that an invalid register address has been speci ed and to make sure that execution is in the correct bits. Most people clear bits 7 and 8 of the de ned register address to avoid this message. This can be done by simply ANDing the address with 0x7F to clear bit 7, but a somewhat more sophisticated operation normally is performed on the address to make sure that the register is accessed from the correct bank. Instead of ANDing with 0x7F to clear bit 7 for bank 1, the address is XORed with 0x80. By doing this, if the register is supposed to be in bank 1 (bit 7 of the address is set), then it will be cleared. If the register can only be accessed in bank 0 (bit 7 of the address is reset), then this operation will result in bit 7 being set and will cause the preceding message to be given. This is a nice way to ensure that you are not accessing registers that are not in the currently selected bank. Using the XOR operation, the preceding example becomes
PORTB.Bit0 = 1; STATUS.RP0 = 1; (TRISB ^ 0x080).Bit0 = 0; STATUS.RP0 = 0; // // // // // Load PORTB.Bit0 with a 1 Start Executing out of Start Bank 1 Make PORTB.Bit0 Output Resume Execution in Bank 0
This is also true for banks 2 and 3, which have address bit 8 set. In Table 6.3 I have listed the value of the XOR registers for speci c banks. If the error message comes out of the register access, then you will know that you are accessing a register in the wrong bank. Note that the INDF, PCL, STATUS, FSR, PCLATH, and INTCON registers are common across all the banks and do not have to have their addresses XORed with a constant value to be accessed correctly. Direct bank addressing is a very confusing concept and, unfortunately, very important to PIC microcontroller application development. I realize that it probably will be dif cult for you to understand exactly what I am saying here, but it will become clearer as you work through the example application code.
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