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TABLE 15.2
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SAMPLE HANDHELD GAME COMPONENT CURRENT DRAWS ACTIVE CURRENT DRAW DRAW SOUND-OFF ACTIVE CURRENT DRAW
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PIC microcontroller LCD Sound chip
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4 mA 60 mA 100 mA
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30 nA 60 mA 30 A
30 nA 60 A 30 A
Nanowatt part
Action current draw is when a sound is being made. Current draw is sum of others 20 percent to re ect current loss 20 A quiescent current.
dc/dc Converter
32.82 mA
18.82 mA
32.012 mA
38 A
Total current draws
196.82 mA
112.82 mA 24.8 hours
92.012 mA 30.4 hours
128.03 A 21,870 hours
Life expectancy 14.2 hours
and fully understand how the part works in terms of current consumption when it is active and in standby modes. When you do truly understand how the components work, you will be amazed at the life and operation you can achieve. To show you what I mean, consider a small handheld game that is controlled by a PIC microcontroller, is powered by a single AA battery (which has a 2,800-mAh capacity rating), has an LCD, a sound chip, and a dc/dc converter (80 percent ef cient) to convert the battery s 1.5 V to 3.3 V for the other chips in the system. Table 15.2 lists the chips along with some sample current requirements with what would be the expected life expectancy on a single AA battery. In this table you can see that the game will have an operating life expectancy of anywhere from 14.2 hours to almost 21/2 years clearly putting the components into standby mode as much as possible will be advantageous for the user. The issue now is to understand the customer s usage model to see if you can provide customers with a product with the maximum life possible from the single AA battery. These calculations are best done on a spreadsheet, where you can modify your assumptions. As I started working with my spreadsheet, I added the Sound-Off Active Current Draw column to Table 15.2 to see what could be gained by putting the PIC microcontroller and the source chip to sleep except when absolutely required. Table 15.3 lists some different usage models and the life expectancies that you get from the product. Note that to maximize the life of the product, I have assumed that the sound-off mode
PIC MICROCONTROLLER APPLICATION DESIGN AND HARDWARE INTERFACING
TABLE 15.3 SAMPLE LIFE EXPECTANCIES FOR DIFFERENT USAGE MODELS FOR THE HANDHELD GAME SOUND -OFF % FULL STANDBY % AVERAGE CURRENT DRAW EXPECTED BATTERY LIFE
OPERATING MODE
ACTION %
ACTIVE %
Hardcore gamer (6 hours/day) Moderate gamer (1.5 hours/day) Casual gamer (1/2 hour/day)
1% 0.25% 0.08%
1% 0.25% 0.08%
23% 5% 0.84%
75% 94% 99%
24.80 mA 5.50 mA 1.15 mA
113 hours (4.7 days) 509 hours (21 days) 2,435 hours (101 days)
will be a signi cant part of the gaming experience, with the game shutting down after 2 minutes of inactivity. When I chose the values for this table, I used some components with which I am familiar (so the current draws are actually very representative of an actual system). Going through the analysis, to get a year s life on the battery, the game would have to be active for about 15 minutes per day, which is less than I projected for the casual gamer, and before the product could go ahead, the usage model of 15 minutes would have to be vetted by company management and the decision made to modify the customer usage models, add more batteries (or batteries with more capacity or higher output voltage, eliminating the need for the dc/dc converter), or simply sell the product as is and accept that customers will be replacing batteries more frequently than the product. The important thing to get from this analysis is that huge gains can be achieved through the aggressive use of power-down modes; for this simple handheld game, the life of the product went from a half day to over 100 days by understanding what is possible with putting the product in standby along with stating expected customer usage models.
Reset
Reset can be implemented in the PIC microcontroller simply with many new parts, eliminating the need for a separate circuit or having a built-in brown-out reset sensor. Even putting your own reset circuit into an application is simple, with only a couple of rules that must be followed. Adding external reset circuit to the PIC microcontroller consists of a pull-up connected to the _MCLR pin of the PIC microcontroller. As shown in Fig. 15.4, a switch pulling _MCLR to ground potential can be implemented with a momentary-on switch. A resistor of 1 to 10 k is probably most appropriate; the input is CMOS and does not draw any current through the resistor. The resistor is used primarily as a current-limiting device for the momentary-on switch.
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