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Analog voltage buffer.
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ANALOG INPUT/OUTPUT
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5 4 Voltage 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Resistor Steps 6 7 8
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Figure 20.23 Resistor ladder voltage output showing 10k resistor steps versus non linear resistor steps.
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The actual output obviously deviates signi cantly from the desired (linear) output. Finding the correct resistor values is not that dif cult. Using the rearranged formula for Rn (from above), we can plug in an Rs value of 10 k , a Vcc of 5 V, and then gure how to go from 0 to Vmax in nine steps. When I created this application for the rst edition of the book, I used a PIC16C84 (which is different from the PIC16F84 used for this edition), and I was able to calculate values very straightforwardly to get a linear output. This was not possible for the PIC16F84, and I found that I had to experiment a bit to get the values speci ed in Fig. 20.20. These values will produce the reasonable linear steps shown in the oscilloscope picture in Fig. 20.24. Despite the complexity of wiring this application, one of the really nice things about this circuit is that it can be checked for wiring errors without the PIC installed. This is done by hooking up your DMM and checking the resistances between the I/O pins. If you re curious, you could rewire the circuit using a constant value for each step in the ladder. If you repeat the experiment with the voltmeter, you will nd the asymptotic curve predicted in the preceding graph. The PIC microcontroller application code (Vladder.asm) just runs through the resistor ladder and can be found in the code\Vladder folder.
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title VLadder - Resistor Ladder Analog Output. #de ne DMM ; ; This Program Runs through a Saw Tooth Analog Output from the ; 16C84. The Output is generated by a Resistor Ladder attached ; to PORTB. To set a particular voltage, a bit is output to 0 volts. ; ; Hardware Notes: ; PIC16F84 Running at 4 MHz ; Reset is tied directly to Vcc and PWRT is Enabled. ; The Resistor Ladder is attached to PORTB.7:0 ;
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5 us
Figure 20.24 oscilloscope.
The output of the Vladder circuit when looked at with an
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
A 4.7K Resistor between PORTB.0 and Vcc (Output is taken from here as well) A 1K Resistor between PORTB.0 and PORTB.1 A 2.2K Resistor between PORTB.1 and PORTB.2 A 2.2K Resistor between PORTB.2 and PORTB.3 A 3.3K Resistor between PORTB.3 and PORTB.4 A 3.3K Resistor between PORTB.4 and PORTB.5 A 4.7K Resistor between PORTB.5 and PORTB.6 A 10K Resistor between PORTB.6 and PORTB.7 Updated: 99.12.27 - For Second Edition Myke Predko 96.06.27 LIST R=DEC INCLUDE p16f84.inc
; Registers CBLOCK 0x020 Count, Counthi, Countu
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ENDC __CONFIG _CP_OFF & _WDT_OFF & _XT_OSC & _PWRTE_ON PAGE Code for VLadder org nop clrf movlw movwf bcf Loop: ifdef call endif rlf goto DMM Delay PORTB TRISB FSR STATUS, C ; Setup the TRIS Values 0
Use the Carry as the Skip Value
; Loop Around Here to Output Sawtooth ; ; Just Dlay if only a DMM Available for Seeing the Output
INDF, f Loop
ifdef Delay: clrf clrf movlw movwf Dlay: decfsz goto decfsz goto decfsz goto return endif
Count Counthi 6 Countu Count, f Dlay Counthi, f Dlay Countu, f Dlay
Display for one Second
PIC MICROCONTROLLER APPLICATION BASICS
The code for this application is designed with the DMM conditional code. If the DMM #de ne is used, the 1-second Delay subroutine is called so that you can watch the voltage change on a DMM. If DMM is not de ned, then the application will run with the voltage changing once every 3 ms, and the waveform can be observed on an oscilloscope, such as the oscilloscope picture shown in Fig. 20.24. As you step through the code (make sure that you don t de ne DMM when doing this, or you ll be clicking your mouse a lot, and you will watch the zero shift through TRISB, which causes PORTB to act like an programmable open collector output and change the effective voltage divider resistance. It is important to note that this code takes advantage of the value in the carry ag not changing between Loop iterations. This was important when specifying the Delay code to make sure that no add or subtract instructions (which could modify the ##) were used. When I created this circuit for the second edition, I must confess that I had some signi cant problems. The rst and most obvious one was that the schematic presented in the rst edition was not correct and did not match the application code presented with it. This experiment is correct and has been tested in a number of different devices. I also had a lot of problems replicating what, I saw in the rst edition in this edition. It took me several hours to reconcile the actual results, but I can say con dently that the circuit diagrams presented here will work with the application code to produce a highfrequency sawtooth. The information contained in this experiment was used as a base to produce the NTSC composite video output described in Chap. 21.
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